Document
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
______________________________________ 
FORM 10-Q
______________________________________ 
x
 
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE
SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the Quarterly Period Ended June 30, 2018
or
o
 
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE
SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
Commission File Number 1-16411
NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
DELAWARE
 
80-0640649
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
 
 
 
2980 Fairview Park Drive,
Falls Church, Virginia
 
22042
(Address of principal executive offices)
 
(Zip Code)
(703) 280-2900
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
Yes x
 
No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).
Yes x
 
No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act:
Large accelerated filer x
 
Accelerated filer o
 
 
 
Non-accelerated filer o (Do not check if a smaller reporting company)
 
 Smaller reporting company o
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 Emerging growth company o
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).
Yes o
 
No x
Indicate the number of shares outstanding of each of the issuer’s classes of common stock, as of the latest practicable date.
As of July 20, 2018, 174,123,419 shares of common stock were outstanding.


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NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION                        

TABLE OF CONTENTS 
 
 
Page
 
 
Item 1.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Item 2.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Item 3.
Item 4.
 
 
 
 
 
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
Item 5.
Item 6.
 

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NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION                        

PART I. FINANCIAL INFORMATION
Item 1.    Financial Statements
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF EARNINGS AND COMPREHENSIVE INCOME
(Unaudited)
 
Three Months Ended June 30
 
Six Months Ended June 30
$ in millions, except per share amounts
2018
 
2017
 
2018
 
2017
Sales
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Product
$
4,790

 
$
4,037

 
$
9,079

 
$
8,034

Service
2,329

 
2,436

 
4,775

 
4,849

Total sales
7,119

 
6,473

 
13,854

 
12,883

Operating costs and expenses
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Product
3,694

 
3,037

 
6,959

 
6,020

Service
1,863

 
1,877

 
3,768

 
3,744

General and administrative expenses
739

 
686

 
1,450

 
1,384

Operating income
823

 
873

 
1,677

 
1,735

Other (expense) income
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Interest expense
(144
)
 
(76
)
 
(287
)
 
(151
)
Net FAS (non-service) pension benefit (expense)
125

 
(17
)
 
245

 
(35
)
Other, net
45

 
32

 
85

 
51

Earnings before income taxes
849

 
812

 
1,720

 
1,600

Federal and foreign income tax expense
160

 
257

 
292

 
395

Net earnings
$
689

 
$
555

 
$
1,428

 
$
1,205

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic earnings per share
$
3.95

 
$
3.18

 
$
8.19

 
$
6.90

Weighted-average common shares outstanding, in millions
174.5

 
174.5

 
174.4

 
174.7

Diluted earnings per share
$
3.93

 
$
3.16

 
$
8.14

 
$
6.85

Weighted-average diluted shares outstanding, in millions
175.4

 
175.5

 
175.4

 
175.8

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net earnings (from above)
$
689

 
$
555

 
$
1,428

 
$
1,205

Other comprehensive income
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Change in unamortized benefit plan costs, net of tax
86

 
102

 
172

 
201

Change in cumulative translation adjustment

 
(4
)
 
(2
)
 

Other, net
(3
)
 
1

 
(4
)
 
3

Other comprehensive income, net of tax
83

 
99

 
166

 
204

Comprehensive income
$
772

 
$
654

 
$
1,594

 
$
1,409

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.

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NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION                        

CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF FINANCIAL POSITION
(Unaudited)
$ in millions
June 30,
2018
 
December 31,
2017
Assets
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
$
1,539

 
$
11,225

Accounts receivable, net
1,815

 
1,054

Unbilled receivables, net
5,272

 
3,465

Inventoried costs, net
690

 
398

Prepaid expenses and other current assets
406

 
445

Total current assets
9,722

 
16,587

Property, plant and equipment, net of accumulated depreciation of $5,187 for 2018 and $5,066 for 2017
5,864

 
4,225

Goodwill
18,747

 
12,455

Intangible assets, net
1,329

 
52

Deferred tax assets
179

 
447

Other non-current assets
1,537

 
1,362

Total assets
$
37,378

 
$
35,128

 
 
 
 
Liabilities
 
 
 
Trade accounts payable
$
1,824

 
$
1,661

Accrued employee compensation
1,451

 
1,382

Advance payments and amounts in excess of costs incurred
1,711

 
1,761

Other current liabilities
2,847

 
2,288

Total current liabilities
7,833

 
7,092

Long-term debt, net of current portion of $744 for 2018 and $867 for 2017
14,387

 
14,399

Pension and other post-retirement benefit plan liabilities
5,755

 
5,511

Other non-current liabilities
1,176

 
994

Total liabilities
29,151

 
27,996

 
 
 
 
Commitments and contingencies (Note 8)

 

 
 
 
 
Shareholders’ equity
 
 
 
Preferred stock, $1 par value; 10,000,000 shares authorized; no shares issued and outstanding

 

Common stock, $1 par value; 800,000,000 shares authorized; issued and outstanding: 2018—174,254,250 and 2017—174,085,619
174

 
174

Paid-in capital

 
44

Retained earnings
13,669

 
11,632

Accumulated other comprehensive loss
(5,616
)
 
(4,718
)
Total shareholders’ equity
8,227

 
7,132

Total liabilities and shareholders’ equity
$
37,378

 
$
35,128

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.

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NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION                        

CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(Unaudited)
 
Six Months Ended June 30
$ in millions
2018
 
2017
Operating activities
 
 
 
Net earnings
$
1,428

 
$
1,205

Adjustments to reconcile to net cash provided by operating activities:
 
 
 
Depreciation and amortization
281

 
213

Stock-based compensation
53

 
42

Deferred income taxes
(17
)
 
(39
)
Changes in assets and liabilities:
 
 
 
Accounts receivable, net
(145
)
 
(509
)
Unbilled receivables, net
(570
)
 
(793
)
Inventoried costs, net
(73
)
 
(54
)
Prepaid expenses and other assets
57

 
(34
)
Accounts payable and other liabilities
(422
)
 
(172
)
Income taxes payable, net
186

 
90

Retiree benefits
(127
)
 
165

Other, net
(13
)
 
(46
)
Net cash provided by operating activities
638

 
68

 
 
 
 
Investing activities
 
 
 
Acquisition of Orbital ATK, net of cash acquired
(7,657
)
 

Capital expenditures
(504
)
 
(433
)
Other, net
2

 
7

Net cash used in investing activities
(8,159
)
 
(426
)
 
 
 
 
Financing activities
 
 
 
Payments of long-term debt
(1,550
)
 

Payments to credit facilities
(314
)
 

Net borrowings on commercial paper
249

 

Common stock repurchases
(41
)
 
(367
)
Cash dividends paid
(407
)
 
(341
)
Payments of employee taxes withheld from share-based awards
(80
)
 
(91
)
Other, net
(22
)
 
(1
)
Net cash used in financing activities
(2,165
)
 
(800
)
Decrease in cash and cash equivalents
(9,686
)
 
(1,158
)
Cash and cash equivalents, beginning of year
11,225

 
2,541

Cash and cash equivalents, end of period
$
1,539

 
$
1,383

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.

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NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION                        

CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CHANGES IN SHAREHOLDERS’ EQUITY
(Unaudited)
 
Six Months Ended June 30
$ in millions, except per share amounts
2018
 
2017
Common stock
 
 
 
Beginning of year
$
174

 
$
175

Common stock repurchased

 
(2
)
Shares issued for employee stock awards and options

 
1

End of period
174

 
174

Paid-in capital
 
 
 
Beginning of year
44

 

Common stock repurchased
(34
)
 

Stock compensation
(10
)
 

End of period

 

Retained earnings
 
 
 
Beginning of year
11,632

 
10,734

Impact from adoption of ASU 2018-02 and ASU 2016-01 (See Note 1)
1,064

 

Common stock repurchased
(15
)
 
(351
)
Net earnings
1,428

 
1,205

Dividends declared
(405
)
 
(336
)
Stock compensation
(35
)
 
(48
)
End of period
13,669

 
11,204

Accumulated other comprehensive loss
 
 
 
Beginning of year
(4,718
)
 
(5,546
)
Impact from adoption of ASU 2018-02 and ASU 2016-01 (See Note 1)
(1,064
)
 

Other comprehensive income, net of tax
166

 
204

End of period
(5,616
)
 
(5,342
)
Total shareholders’ equity
$
8,227

 
$
6,036

Cash dividends declared per share
$
2.30

 
$
1.90

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.

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NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION                        

NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS (Unaudited)
1.    BASIS OF PRESENTATION
Principles of Consolidation and Reporting
These unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements (the “financial statements”) include the accounts of Northrop Grumman Corporation and its subsidiaries and joint ventures or other investments for which we consolidate the financial results (herein referred to as “Northrop Grumman,” the “company,” “we,” “us,” or “our”). Material intercompany accounts, transactions and profits are eliminated in consolidation. Investments in equity securities and joint ventures where the company has significant influence, but not control, are accounted for using the equity method.
On June 6, 2018 (the “Merger date”), the company completed its previously announced acquisition of Orbital ATK, Inc. (“Orbital ATK”) (the “Merger”). On the Merger date, Orbital ATK became a wholly-owned subsidiary of the company and its name was changed to Northrop Grumman Innovation Systems, Inc., which we established as a new, fourth business sector (“Innovation Systems”). The operating results of Innovation Systems subsequent to the Merger date have been included in the company's consolidated results of operations. See Note 2 to the financial statements for further information regarding the acquisition of Orbital ATK.
The financial statements are prepared in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP” or “FAS”) and in accordance with the rules of the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) for interim reporting. The financial statements include adjustments of a normal recurring nature considered necessary by management for a fair presentation of the company’s unaudited condensed consolidated financial position, results of operations and cash flows.
The results reported in these financial statements are not necessarily indicative of results that may be expected for the entire year. These financial statements should be read in conjunction with the information contained in the company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017 (2017 Annual Report on Form 10-K).
The quarterly information is labeled using a calendar convention; that is, first quarter is consistently labeled as ending on March 31, second quarter as ending on June 30 and third quarter as ending on September 30. It is the company’s long-standing practice to establish actual interim closing dates using a “fiscal” calendar, in which we close our books on a Friday near these quarter-end dates in order to normalize the potentially disruptive effects of quarterly closings on business processes. Similarly, Innovation Systems uses a “fiscal” calendar by closing its books on a Sunday near these quarter-end dates and will continue this practice until its business processes are aligned with the company’s. The Friday and Sunday closing dates noted herein are both labeled as June 30, consistent with our calendar convention described above. This practice is only used at interim periods within a reporting year.
As previously announced, effective January 1, 2018, we adopted Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, and Accounting Standards Update (ASU) No. 2017-07, Compensation Retirement Benefits (Topic 715): Improving the Presentation of Net Periodic Pension Cost and Net Periodic Postretirement Benefit Cost, using the full retrospective method. The adoption of these standards are reflected in the amounts and disclosures set forth in this Form 10-Q and the effect of these standards on the company’s unaudited condensed consolidated statements of earnings and comprehensive income for the three and six months ended June 30, 2017 and unaudited condensed consolidated statement of financial position as of December 31, 2017 is reflected in Note 12.
Accounting Estimates
Preparation of the financial statements requires management to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingencies at the date of the financial statements, as well as the reported amounts of sales and expenses during the reporting period. Estimates have been prepared using the most current and best available information; however, actual results could differ materially from those estimates.
Revenue Recognition
The majority of our sales are derived from long-term contracts with the U.S. government for the production of goods, the provision of services, or a combination of both. The company classifies sales as product or service based on the predominant attributes of each contract.
Under ASC Topic 606, the company recognizes revenue for each separately identifiable performance obligation in a contract representing a promise to transfer a distinct good or service to a customer. In most cases, goods and services provided under the company’s contracts are accounted for as single performance obligations due to the complex and

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NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION                        

integrated nature of our products and services. These contracts generally require significant integration of a group of goods and/or services to deliver a combined output. In some contracts, the company provides multiple distinct goods or services to a customer, most commonly when a contract covers multiple phases of the product lifecycle (development, production, maintenance and/or support). In those cases, the company accounts for the distinct contract deliverables as separate performance obligations and allocates the transaction price to each performance obligation based on its relative standalone selling price, which is generally estimated using the cost plus a reasonable margin approach of ASC Topic 606. Warranties are provided on certain contracts, but do not typically provide for services beyond standard assurances and are therefore not within the scope of ASC Topic 606. Likewise, our accounting for costs to obtain or fulfill a contract was not significantly impacted by the adoption of ASC Topic 606 as these costs are not material.
A contract modification exists when the parties to a contract approve a change in the scope or price of a contract. Contracts are often modified for changes in contract specifications or requirements. Most of the company’s contract modifications are for goods or services that are not distinct in the context of the contract and are therefore accounted for as part of the original performance obligation through a cumulative estimate-at-completion (EAC) adjustment.
The company recognizes revenue as control is transferred to the customer, either over time or at a point in time. In general, our U.S. government contracts contain termination for convenience clauses that generally entitle the customer to goods produced and/or in-process. Similarly, our non-U.S. government contracts generally contain contractual termination clauses or entitle the company to payment for work performed to date for goods and services that do not have an alternative use. As control is effectively transferred as we perform on our contracts and we are typically entitled to cost plus a reasonable margin for work in process if the contract is terminated for convenience, we generally recognize revenue over time on a cost-to-cost basis (cost incurred relative to total cost estimated at completion) as the company believes this represents the most appropriate measurement towards satisfaction of its performance obligations. Revenue for contracts in which the control of goods produced does not transfer until delivery to the customer is recognized at a point in time (i.e. typically upon delivery).
Contract Estimates
Use of the cost-to-cost method requires us to make reasonably dependable estimates regarding the revenue and cost associated with the design, manufacture and delivery of our products and services. The company estimates profit on these contracts as the difference between total estimated sales and total estimated cost at completion and recognizes that profit as costs are incurred. Significant judgment is used to estimate total revenue and cost at completion.
Contract sales may include estimates of variable consideration, including cost or performance incentives (such as award and incentive fees), contract claims and requests for equitable adjustment (REAs). Variable consideration is included in total estimated sales to the extent it is probable that a significant reversal in the amount of cumulative revenue recognized will not occur when the uncertainty associated with the variable consideration is subsequently resolved. We estimate variable consideration at the most likely amount to which we expect to be entitled.
We recognize changes in estimated contract sales or costs and the resulting changes in contract profit on a cumulative basis. Cumulative EAC adjustments represent the cumulative effect of the changes on current and prior periods; sales and operating margins in future periods are recognized as if the revised estimates had been used since contract inception. If it is determined that a loss is expected to result on an individual performance obligation, the entire amount of the estimable future loss, including an allocation of general and administrative (G&A) costs, is charged against income in the period the loss is identified. Each loss provision is first offset against costs included in unbilled accounts receivable or inventoried costs; remaining amounts are reflected in other current liabilities.
Significant EAC adjustments on a single contract could have a material effect on the company’s financial statements. When such adjustments occur, we generally disclose the nature, underlying conditions and financial impact of the adjustments. During the three months ended June 30, 2018, the company recognized $69 million of favorable EAC adjustments on multiple restricted programs at Aerospace Systems.

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NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION                        

The following table presents the effect of aggregate net EAC adjustments:
 
Three Months Ended June 30
 
Six Months Ended June 30
$ in millions, except per share data
2018
 
2017
 
2018
 
2017
Operating Income
$
143

 
$
102

 
$
259

 
$
243

Net Earnings(1)
113

 
66

 
205

 
158

Diluted earnings per share(1)
0.64

 
0.38

 
1.17

 
0.90

(1) 
Based on statutory tax rates in effect for each period presented.
Revenue recognized from performance obligations satisfied in previous reporting periods was $156 million and $289 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2018, respectively, and $101 million and $246 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2017, respectively.
Backlog
Backlog represents the future sales we expect to recognize on firm orders received by the company and is equivalent to the company’s remaining performance obligations at the end of each period. It comprises both funded backlog (firm orders for which funding is authorized and appropriated) and unfunded backlog. Unexercised contract options and indefinite delivery indefinite quantity (IDIQ) contracts are not included in backlog until the time the option or IDIQ task order is exercised or awarded.
Company backlog as of June 30, 2018 was $52.2 billion and includes $8.7 billion of Innovation Systems backlog (approximately $500 million of legacy Orbital ATK backlog related to contracts with legacy Northrop Grumman sectors was eliminated in connection with the Merger). We expect to recognize approximately 50 percent and 75 percent of our June 30, 2018 backlog as revenue over the next 12 and 24 months, respectively, with the remainder to be recognized thereafter.
Contract Assets and Liabilities
For each of the company’s contracts, the timing of revenue recognition, customer billings, and cash collections results in a net contract asset or liability at the end of each reporting period. Fixed-price contracts are typically billed to the customer either using progress payments, whereby amounts are billed monthly as costs are incurred or work is completed, or performance based payments, which are based upon the achievement of specific, measurable events or accomplishments defined and valued at contract inception. Cost-type contracts are typically billed to the customer on a monthly or semi-monthly basis.
Contract assets consist of unbilled receivables, primarily related to long-term contracts where revenue recognized under the cost-to-cost method exceeds amounts billed to customers. Unbilled receivables are classified as current assets and, in accordance with industry practice, include amounts that may be billed and collected beyond one year due to the long-cycle nature of many of our contracts. Accumulated contract costs in unbilled receivables include direct production costs, factory and engineering overhead, production tooling costs, and allowable G&A. Unbilled receivables also include certain estimates of variable consideration described above. These contract assets are not considered a significant financing component of the company’s contracts as the payment terms are intended to protect the customer in the event the company does not perform on its obligations under the contract.
Contract liabilities include advance payments and billings in excess of revenue recognized. Certain customers make advance payments prior to the satisfaction of the company’s obligations on the contract. These amounts are recorded as contract liabilities until such obligations are satisfied, either over time as costs are incurred or at a point in time when deliveries are made. Contract liabilities are not a significant financing component as they are generally utilized to pay for contract costs within a one-year period or are used to ensure the customer meets contractual requirements.

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NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION                        

Net contract assets (liabilities) are as follows:
$ in millions
June 30,
2018
 
December 31,
2017
$ Change
% Change
Unbilled receivables, net
$
5,272

 
$
3,465

$
1,807

52
 %
Advance payments and amounts in excess of costs incurred
(1,711
)
 
(1,761
)
50

(3
)%
Net contract assets (liabilities)
$
3,561

 
$
1,704

$
1,857

109
 %
The amount of revenue recognized for the three and six months ended June 30, 2018 that was included in the December 31, 2017 contract liability balance was $364 million and $1.1 billion, respectively. The amount of revenue recognized for the three and six months ended June 30, 2017 that was included in the December 31, 2016 contract liability balance was $272 million and $850 million, respectively.
The change in the balances of the company’s contract assets and liabilities primarily results from timing differences between company performance and customer payments. The increase in net contract assets during the six months ended June 30, 2018, is principally due to the addition of $1.1 billion of net contract assets from Innovation Systems and higher sales on restricted programs at Aerospace Systems.
Disaggregation of Revenue
See Note 11 for information regarding the company’s sales by customer type, contract type and geographic region for each of our segments. We believe those categories best depict how the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of our revenue and cash flows are affected by economic factors.
Other Purchased Intangible Assets
Purchased intangible asset balances are included in the identifiable assets of their assigned business segment. Beginning in 2018, the company includes the amortization of purchased intangible assets in unallocated corporate expense within operating income as such amortization is no longer considered part of management’s evaluation of segment operating performance. The company’s customer-related intangible assets are amortized over their respective useful lives typically based on the pattern in which the future economic benefits of the intangible assets are expected to be consumed. Other purchased intangible assets are generally amortized on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives.
Accumulated Other Comprehensive Loss
The components of accumulated other comprehensive loss are as follows:
$ in millions
June 30,
2018
 
December 31,
2017
Unamortized benefit plan costs, net of tax benefit of $1,940 for 2018 and $3,056 for 2017
$
(5,474
)
 
$
(4,586
)
Cumulative translation adjustment
(138
)
 
(136
)
Other, net
(4
)
 
4

Total accumulated other comprehensive loss
$
(5,616
)
 
$
(4,718
)
Unamortized benefit plan costs as of June 30, 2018 reflect a reclassification from accumulated other comprehensive loss to retained earnings of $1.1 billion of stranded tax effects resulting from the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the “2017 Tax Act”). This reclassification resulted from the company’s early adoption of ASU 2018-02 on January 1, 2018. See “Accounting Standards Updates” below for more information.
Unamortized benefit plan costs consist primarily of net after-tax actuarial losses totaling $5.6 billion and $4.7 billion as of June 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, respectively. Net actuarial gains or losses are redetermined annually or upon remeasurement events and principally arise from changes in the interest rate used to discount our benefit obligations and differences between expected and actual returns on plan assets.
Reclassifications from accumulated other comprehensive loss to net earnings related to the amortization of benefit plan costs were $86 million and $172 million, net of taxes, for the three and six months ended June 30, 2018, respectively, and were $100 million and $199 million, net of taxes, for the three and six months ended June 30, 2017, respectively. The reclassifications represent the amortization of net actuarial losses and prior service credits, and are included in the computation of net periodic pension cost. See Note 9 for further information.

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NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION                        

Reclassifications from accumulated other comprehensive loss to net earnings relating to cumulative translation adjustments and effective cash flow hedges were not material for the three and six months ended June 30, 2018 and 2017.
Related Party Transactions
The company had no material related party transactions in any period presented.
Accounting Standards Updates
On February 14, 2018, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued ASU 2018-02, Income Statement - Reporting Comprehensive Income (Topic 220): Reclassification of Certain Tax Effects from Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income. ASU 2018-02 allows companies to reclassify stranded tax effects resulting from the 2017 Tax Act from accumulated other comprehensive income to retained earnings. As described above, the company elected to early adopt ASU 2018-02 on January 1, 2018, which resulted in a reclassification of $1.1 billion of stranded tax effects, principally related to our unamortized benefit plan costs, from accumulated other comprehensive loss to retained earnings. This reclassification included $73 million of other income tax effects related to a reduction in the federal benefit associated with state taxes. Adoption of ASU 2018-02 did not have a material impact on the company’s results of operations and/or cash flows.
On March 10, 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-07, Compensation Retirement Benefits (Topic 715): Improving the Presentation of Net Periodic Pension Cost and Net Periodic Postretirement Benefit Cost. ASU 2017-07 requires employers that sponsor defined benefit pension and/or other post-retirement benefit plans to report the service cost component of net benefit cost in the same line item as other compensation costs arising from services rendered by the pertinent employees during the period. Employers are required to present the other components of net benefit costs in the income statement separately from the service cost component and outside a subtotal of income from operations. Additionally, only the service cost component of net periodic pension cost is eligible for asset capitalization. We adopted ASU 2017-07 on January 1, 2018 using the retrospective method. See Note 12 for information regarding the effect of adopting ASU 2017-07 on our unaudited condensed consolidated statement of earnings and comprehensive income for the three and six months ended June 30, 2017. Adoption of ASU 2017-07 did not have a material impact on our consolidated statements of financial position and/or cash flows.
On February 25, 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842). ASU 2016-02 supersedes existing lease guidance, including ASC 840 - Leases. Among other things, ASU 2016-02 requires recognition of a right-of-use asset and liability for future lease payments for contracts that meet the definition of a lease and requires disclosure of certain information about leasing arrangements. ASU 2016-02 will be effective January 1, 2019, although early adoption is permitted, and may be adopted using a modified retrospective transition method that applies the new lease requirements at the beginning of the earliest period presented in the financial statements. The FASB has proposed a change that would allow a company to elect an optional transition method that applies the new lease requirements through a cumulative-effect adjustment in the period of adoption. We expect to adopt the standard on January 1, 2019 using the proposed optional transition method if finalized in its current form. As a result of the Merger, we are currently reevaluating the expected impact of ASU 2016-02 on the company’s consolidated financial position and financial statement disclosures. We do not expect ASU 2016-02 to have a material impact on our annual results of operations and/or cash flows.
On January 5, 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-01, Financial Instruments (Topic 825): Recognition and Measurement of Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities. ASU 2016-01 requires equity investments that are not accounted for under the equity method of accounting or that do not result in consolidation of the investee to be measured at fair value with changes recognized in net earnings. ASU 2016-01 also eliminates the available-for-sale classification for equity investments that recognized changes in fair value as a component of other comprehensive income. We adopted ASU 2016-01 on January 1, 2018 using the modified retrospective method, which resulted in a $4 million (net of tax) cumulative-effect adjustment from accumulated other comprehensive loss to retained earnings. Adoption of ASU 2016-01 did not have a material impact on our results of operations and/or cash flows.
On May 28, 2014, the FASB issued ASU No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606). Topic 606 supersedes previous revenue recognition guidance, including ASC 605-35, Revenue Recognition - Construction-Type and Production-Type Contracts, and outlines a single set of comprehensive principles for recognizing revenue under U.S. GAAP. Among other things, it requires companies to identify contractual performance obligations and determine whether revenue should be recognized at a point in time or over time. The primary impact of the adoption of ASC Topic 606 was that, in most cases, the accounting for those contracts where we previously recognized revenue as units were delivered changed under ASC Topic 606 such that we now recognize revenue as costs are

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NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION                        

incurred. In addition, for certain of our contracts, there is a change in the number of performance obligations under ASC Topic 606, which has altered the timing of revenue and margin recognition.
We adopted ASC Topic 606 on January 1, 2018 using the full retrospective method. We applied the transition practical expedient related to remaining performance obligations for reporting periods presented before the date of initial application. No other practical expedients were applied. The cumulative effect of adopting ASC Topic 606 was a $148 million increase to retained earnings at January 1, 2016. See Note 12 for information regarding the effect of adopting ASC Topic 606 on our unaudited condensed consolidated statement of earnings and comprehensive income for the three and six months ended June 30, 2017 and unaudited condensed consolidated statement of financial position as of December 31, 2017.
Other accounting standards updates adopted and/or issued, but not effective until after June 30, 2018, are not expected to have a material effect on the company’s unaudited condensed consolidated financial position, annual results of operations and/or cash flows.
2.  ACQUISITION OF ORBITAL ATK
On June 6, 2018, the company completed its previously announced acquisition of Orbital ATK, a global leader in aerospace and defense technologies, by acquiring all of the outstanding shares of Orbital ATK for a purchase price of $7.7 billion in cash. On the Merger date, Orbital ATK became a wholly-owned subsidiary of the company and its name was changed to Northrop Grumman Innovation Systems, Inc. We established Innovation Systems as a new, fourth business sector, whose main products include launch vehicles and related propulsion systems; missile products, subsystems and defense electronics; precision weapons, armament systems and ammunition; satellites and associated space components and services; and advanced aerospace structures. The acquisition was financed with proceeds from the company’s debt financing completed in October 2017 and cash on hand. We believe this acquisition will enable us to broaden our capabilities and offerings, provide additional innovative solutions to meet our customers’ emerging requirements, create value for shareholders and provide expanded opportunities for our combined employees.
The operating results of Innovation Systems subsequent to the Merger date have been included in the company's consolidated results of operations. Innovation Systems recognized sales of $400 million, operating income of $39 million and net earnings of $30 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2018.
The company recognized $23 million and $29 million of acquisition-related costs that were expensed as incurred during the three and six months ended June 30, 2018, respectively. These costs are included in Product and Service cost in the unaudited condensed consolidated statement of earnings and comprehensive income.
Preliminary Purchase Price Allocation
The acquisition was accounted for as a purchase business combination. As such, the company recorded the assets acquired and liabilities assumed at fair value, with the excess of the purchase price over the fair value of assets acquired and liabilities assumed recorded as goodwill. The company has completed a preliminary analysis to determine those fair values, and the amounts recorded as of June 30, 2018 reflect management’s initial assessment of fair value as of the Merger date. Determining the fair value of assets acquired and liabilities assumed requires significant judgment, including the amount and timing of expected future cash flows, long-term growth rates and discount rates. In some cases, the company used discounted cash flow analyses, which were based on our best estimate of future sales, earnings and cash flows after considering such factors as general market conditions, customer budgets, existing firm and future orders, changes in working capital, long term business plans and recent operating performance. Use of different estimates and judgments could yield materially different results.
The company expects substantially to finalize its purchase price allocation by the end of 2018 after we have further analyzed and assessed a number of the factors used in establishing the fair values of assets acquired and liabilities assumed as of the Merger date including, but not limited to, contractual and operational factors underlying the customer-related intangible assets and property, plant and equipment; details surrounding tax matters; and assumptions underlying certain existing or potential reserves, such as those for legal and environmental matters. The final fair value determination could result in material adjustments to the values presented in the preliminary purchase price allocation table below.
The Merger date fair value of the consideration transferred totaled $7.7 billion in cash, which was comprised of the following:

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NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION                        

($ in millions, except per share amounts)
 
Purchase price
Shares of Orbital ATK common stock outstanding as of the Merger date
 
57,562,152

Cash consideration per share of Orbital ATK common stock
 
$
134.50

Total purchase price
 
$
7,742

The following preliminary purchase price allocation table presents the company’s initial estimate of the fair values of assets acquired and liabilities assumed at the Merger date:
($ in millions)
 
As of
June 6, 2018
Cash and cash equivalents
 
$
85

Accounts receivable, net
 
616

Unbilled receivables, net
 
1,237

Inventoried costs, net
 
220

Other current assets
 
193

Property, plant and equipment
 
1,500

Goodwill
 
6,295

Intangible assets
 
1,305

Deferred tax assets
 
(230
)
Other non-current assets
 
131

Total assets acquired
 
11,352

Trade accounts payable
 
(397
)
Accrued employee compensation
 
(158
)
Advance payments and amounts in excess of costs incurred
 
(222
)
Below market contracts(1)
 
(155
)
Other current liabilities
 
(298
)
Long-term debt
 
(1,687
)
Pension and other post-retirement benefit plan liabilities
 
(557
)
Other non-current liabilities
 
(136
)
Total liabilities assumed
 
(3,610
)
Total purchase price
 
$
7,742

(1) 
Included in Other current liabilities.
Below market contracts represent liabilities on certain acquired programs where the expected costs at completion exceed the expected sales under contract. We measured these liabilities based on the estimated price to transfer the obligations to a market participant at the Merger date plus a reasonable profit margin. These liabilities will be reduced as the company incurs costs to complete its performance obligations on the underlying programs. This reduction will be included in sales and is estimated as follows: $52 million in 2018, $70 million in 2019, $32 million in 2020 and $1 million in 2021.
The following table presents a preliminary summary of purchased intangible assets and their related estimated useful lives:
 
 
Fair Value
(in millions)
 
Estimated Useful Life in Years
Customer contracts
 
$
1,040

 
9
Commercial customer relationships
 
265

 
13
Total customer-related intangible assets
 
$
1,305

 
 

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NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION                        

The preliminary purchase price allocation resulted in the recognition of $6.3 billion of goodwill, a majority of which was allocated to the Innovation Systems sector (refer to Note 5). The goodwill recognized is attributable to expected revenue synergies generated by the integration of Aerospace Systems, Mission Systems and Technology Services products and technologies with those of legacy Orbital ATK, synergies resulting from the consolidation or elimination of certain costs, and intangible assets that do not qualify for separate recognition, such as the assembled workforce of Orbital ATK. None of the goodwill is expected to be deductible for tax purposes.
Supplemental Pro Forma Information
The following table presents unaudited pro forma financial information as if Orbital ATK had been included in our results as of January 1, 2017:
 
Three Months Ended June 30
 
Six Months Ended June 30
($ in millions, except per share amounts)
2018
 
2017
 
2018
 
2017
Sales
$
8,078

 
$
7,555

 
$
16,078

 
$
15,039

Net earnings
791

 
572

 
1,615

 
1,225

Basic earnings per share
4.53

 
3.28

 
9.26

 
7.01

Diluted earnings per share
4.51

 
3.26

 
9.21

 
6.97

The unaudited supplemental pro forma financial data has been calculated after applying our accounting policies and adjusting the historical results of Orbital ATK with pro forma adjustments, net of tax, that assume the acquisition occurred on January 1, 2017. Significant pro forma adjustments include the following:
1.
The impact of the adoption of ASC Topic 606 on Orbital ATK’s historical sales of $2 million and $21 million, and cost of sales of $2 million and $9 million, for the three and six months ended June 30, 2017.
2.
The elimination of intercompany sales and costs of sales between the company and Orbital ATK of $33 million and $80 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2018 and $35 million and $65 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2017.
3.
The elimination of nonrecurring transaction costs incurred by the company and Orbital ATK in connection with the Merger of $64 million and $71 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2018.
4.
The recognition of additional depreciation expense, net of removal of historical depreciation expense, of $7 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2018, and $8 million and $10 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2017, respectively, related to the step-up in fair value of acquired property, plant and equipment.
5.
Additional interest expense related to the debt issued to finance the Merger, including amortization of the debt issuance costs associated with the newly issued debt, of $66 million and $133 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2017. Interest expense and amortization of debt issuance costs have been included in the company's historical financial statements since the date of issuance (October 12, 2017).
6.
The recognition of additional amortization expense, net of removal of historical amortization expense, of $34 million and $92 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2018, respectively, and $65 million and $130 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2017, respectively, related to the fair value of acquired intangible assets.
7.
The elimination of Orbital ATK's historical amortization of net actuarial losses and prior service credits and impact of the revised pension and other post-retirement net periodic benefit cost as determined under the company’s plan assumptions of $20 million and $51 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2018 and $29 million and $54 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2017.
The unaudited pro forma financial information does not reflect the potential realization of revenue synergies or cost savings, nor does it reflect other costs relating to the integration of the two companies. This pro forma financial information should not be considered indicative of the results that would have actually occurred if the acquisition had been consummated on January 1, 2017, nor are they indicative of future results.

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NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION                        

3.    EARNINGS PER SHARE, SHARE REPURCHASES AND DIVIDENDS ON COMMON STOCK
Basic Earnings Per Share
We calculate basic earnings per share by dividing net earnings by the weighted-average number of shares of common stock outstanding during each period.
Diluted Earnings Per Share
Diluted earnings per share primarily include the dilutive effect of awards granted to employees under stock-based compensation plans. The dilutive effect of these securities totaled 0.9 million shares and 1.0 million shares for the three and six months ended June 30, 2018, respectively. The dilutive effect of these securities totaled 1.0 million and 1.1 million shares for the three and six months ended June 30, 2017, respectively.
Share Repurchases
On September 16, 2015, the company’s board of directors authorized a share repurchase program of up to $4.0 billion of the company’s common stock (the “2015 Repurchase Program”). Repurchases under the 2015 Repurchase Program commenced in March 2016. As of June 30, 2018, repurchases under the 2015 Repurchase Program totaled $1.7 billion; $2.3 billion remained under this share repurchase authorization. By its terms, the 2015 Repurchase Program is set to expire when we have used all authorized funds for repurchases.
Share repurchases take place from time to time, subject to market conditions and management’s discretion, in the open market or in privately negotiated transactions. The company retires its common stock upon repurchase and, in the periods presented, has not made any purchases of common stock other than in connection with these publicly announced repurchase programs.
The table below summarizes the company’s share repurchases to date under the authorizations described above:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Shares Repurchased
(in millions)
Repurchase Program
Authorization Date
 
Amount
Authorized
(in millions)
 
Total
Shares Retired
(in millions)
 
Average 
Price
Per Share
(1)
 
Date Completed
 
Six Months Ended June 30
 
2018
 
2017
September 16, 2015
 
$
4,000

 
7.6

 
$
224.82

 

 
0.2

 
1.5

(1) 
Includes commissions paid.
Dividends on Common Stock
In May 2018, the company increased the quarterly common stock dividend 9 percent to $1.20 per share from the previous amount of $1.10 per share.
In January 2018, the company increased the quarterly common stock dividend 10 percent to $1.10 per share from the previous amount of $1.00 per share.
In May 2017, the company increased the quarterly common stock dividend 11 percent to $1.00 per share from the previous amount of $0.90 per share.
4.    INCOME TAXES
 
Three Months Ended June 30
 
Six Months Ended June 30
$ in millions
2018
 
2017
 
2018

2017
Federal and foreign income tax expense
$
160

 
$
257

 
$
292

 
$
395

Effective income tax rate
18.8
%
 
31.7
%
 
17.0
%
 
24.7
%
Current Quarter
The company’s effective tax rate of 18.8 percent for the three months ended June 30, 2018 was lower as compared with the same period in 2017 principally due to the reduction of the U.S. corporate income tax rate from 35 percent to 21 percent as a result of the 2017 Tax Act. In addition, the company’s effective tax rate for the three months ended June 30, 2018 was lower than the statutory tax rate principally due to $22 million of tax benefits associated with research credits.

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NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION                        

Year to Date
The company’s effective tax rate of 17.0 percent for the six months ended June 30, 2018 was lower as compared with the same period in 2017 principally due to the reduction of the U.S. corporate income tax rate described above. Both periods reflect comparable tax benefits associated with research credits. In addition, the company’s effective tax rate for the six months ended June 30, 2018 includes $26 million of excess tax benefits related to employee share-based compensation. The company’s effective tax rate for the six months ended June 30, 2017 included $47 million of excess tax benefits related to employee share-based compensation, a $42 million benefit recognized in connection with the Congressional Joint Committee on Taxation’s approval of the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) examination of the company’s 2012-2013 tax returns and $31 million of tax benefits associated with domestic manufacturing deductions.
In December 2017, the 2017 Tax Act was enacted. The 2017 Tax Act includes a number of changes to previous U.S. tax laws that impact the company, most notably a reduction of the U.S. corporate income tax rate from 35 percent to 21 percent for tax years beginning after December 31, 2017. The company recognized the income tax effects of the 2017 Tax Act in the financial statements included in its 2017 Annual Report on Form 10-K in accordance with Staff Accounting Bulletin No. 118, which provides SEC staff guidance for the application of ASC Topic 740, Income Taxes, in the reporting period in which the 2017 Tax Act was signed into law. During the six months ended June 30, 2018, the company did not recognize any changes to the provisional amounts recorded in its 2017 Annual Report on Form 10-K in connection with the 2017 Tax Act as the company is continuing to collect the information necessary to complete those calculations. We expect to finalize our analysis in the second half of the year as we complete our federal and state tax returns.
In connection with the Merger, the company has initially recognized an increase in unrecognized tax benefits of approximately $150 million for matters associated with Innovation Systems, principally related to federal and state research credits. In addition, in the second quarter of 2018, we increased our unrecognized tax benefits related to our methods of accounting associated with the 2017 Tax Act by approximately $50 million and it is reasonably possible that within the next twelve months those unrecognized tax benefits may increase by up to an additional $100 million.
We file income tax returns in the U.S. federal jurisdiction and in various state and foreign jurisdictions. The Northrop Grumman 2014-2015 federal tax returns and refund claims related to its 2007-2011 federal tax returns are currently under IRS examination. The company believes it is reasonably possible that within the next twelve months we may resolve certain matters related to the examination of the 2014-2015 tax years, which may result in reductions of our unrecognized tax benefits up to $115 million and income tax expense up to $30 million. In addition, Innovation Systems federal tax returns for the year ended March 31, 2015 and nine-month transition period ended December 31, 2015 are currently under IRS examination. The company believes it is reasonably possible that within the next twelve months we may resolve certain matters related to the examination of these periods, which may result in reductions of our unrecognized tax benefits up to $35 million and income tax expense up to $30 million.
5. GOODWILL AND OTHER PURCHASED INTANGIBLE ASSETS
Goodwill
As discussed in Note 2, Innovation Systems was established as a new, fourth business sector of the company. The Merger resulted in the recognition of $6.3 billion of goodwill, a majority of which was allocated to the Innovation Systems sector. A portion of this goodwill was allocated to the company’s other sectors based on expected revenue synergies generated by the integration of their products and technologies with those of Innovation Systems. The amount of goodwill recognized and allocated to the sectors is subject to change, pending the final determination of the fair value of assets acquired and liabilities assumed in connection with the Merger (see Note 2).
Changes in the carrying amounts of goodwill were as follows:
$ in millions
 
Aerospace Systems
 
Innovation Systems
 
Mission Systems
 
Technology Services
 
Total
Balance as of December 31, 2017
 
$
3,742

 
$

 
$
6,696

 
$
2,017

 
$
12,455

Acquisition of Orbital ATK
 
418

 
5,329

 
469

 
79

 
6,295

Other(1)
 

 

 
(1
)
 
(2
)
 
(3
)
Balance as of June 30, 2018
 
$
4,160

 
$
5,329

 
$
7,164

 
$
2,094

 
$
18,747

(1) 
Other consists primarily of adjustments for foreign currency translation.

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NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION                        

Accumulated goodwill impairment losses at June 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, totaled $570 million at the Aerospace Systems segment.
Purchased Intangible Assets
Net customer-related and other intangible assets, including the preliminary fair value of purchased intangible assets acquired in the Merger, are as follows:
 
 
June 30,
2018
 
December 31, 2017
$ in millions
 
 
Gross customer-related and other intangible assets
 
$
3,138

 
$
1,833

Less accumulated amortization
 
(1,809
)
 
(1,781
)
Net customer-related and other intangible assets
 
$
1,329

 
$
52

Amortization expense for the three and six months ended June 30, 2018 was $24 million and $28 million, respectively, and was $3 million and $7 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2017, respectively. The company’s customer-related intangible assets are amortized over their respective useful lives based on the pattern in which the future economic benefits of the intangible assets are expected to be consumed. Other purchased intangible assets are amortized on a straight-line basis. The company’s purchased intangible assets are being amortized over an aggregate weighted-average period of 12 years. As of June 30, 2018, the expected future amortization of purchased intangibles for each of the next five years is as follows:
$ in millions
 
 
2018 (remainder of year)
 
$
162

2019
 
284

2020
 
232

2021
 
150

2022
 
105

The company’s expected future amortization expense is subject to change, pending the final determination of the fair value of intangible assets acquired in the Merger (see Note 2).
6.    FAIR VALUE OF FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS
The company holds a portfolio of marketable securities consisting of securities to partially fund non-qualified employee benefit plans. A portion of these securities are held in common/collective trust funds and are measured at fair value using net asset value (NAV) per share as a practical expedient; and therefore are not required to be categorized in the fair value hierarchy table below. Marketable securities are included in Other non-current assets in the unaudited condensed consolidated statements of financial position.
The company's derivative portfolio consists primarily of commodity forward contracts and foreign currency forward contracts. As a result of the Merger, the company assumed commodity forward contracts, which Innovation Systems periodically uses to hedge forecasted purchases of certain commodities. The contracts generally establish a fixed price for the underlying commodity and are designated and qualify as effective cash flow hedges of such commodity purchases. Commodity derivatives are valued based on prices of future exchanges and recently reported transactions in the marketplace. For foreign currency forward contracts, where model-derived valuations are appropriate, the company utilizes the income approach to determine the fair value and uses the applicable London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR) swap rates.

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NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION                        

The following table presents the financial assets and liabilities the company records at fair value on a recurring basis identified by the level of inputs used to determine fair value:
 
 
June 30, 2018
 
December 31, 2017
$ in millions
 
Level 1
 
Level 2
 
Total
 
Level 1
 
Level 2
 
Total
Financial Assets (Liabilities)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Marketable securities
 
$
350

 
$

 
$
350

 
$
352

 
$
1

 
$
353

Marketable securities valued using NAV
 

 

 
14

 

 

 

Total marketable securities
 
350

 

 
364

 
352

 
1

 
353

Derivatives
 

 
(5
)
 
(5
)
 

 

 

At June 30, 2018, the company had commodity forward contracts outstanding that hedge forecasted commodity purchases of 17 million pounds of copper and 6 million pounds of zinc. Gains or losses on the commodity forward contracts are recognized in cost of sales as the performance obligations on related contracts are satisfied.
The notional value of the company’s foreign currency forward contracts at June 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017 was $114 million and $89 million, respectively. The portion of notional value designated as a cash flow hedge at June 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017 was $4 million and $8 million, respectively.
The derivative fair values and related unrealized gains/losses at June 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017 were not material.
There were no transfers of financial instruments between the three levels of the fair value hierarchy during the six months ended June 30, 2018.
The carrying value of cash and cash equivalents and commercial paper approximates fair value.
Long-term Debt
The estimated fair value of long-term debt was $15.1 billion and $16.0 billion as of June 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, respectively. We calculated the fair value of long-term debt using Level 2 inputs, based on interest rates available for debt with terms and maturities similar to the company’s existing debt arrangements. The carrying value of long-term debt was $15.1 billion and $15.3 billion as of June 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, respectively. The current portion of long-term debt is recorded in other current liabilities in the unaudited condensed consolidated statements of financial position.
In connection with the Merger, the company assumed $1.7 billion of long-term debt, of which $700 million remained outstanding as of June 30, 2018 (refer to Note 2). This long-term debt was comprised of $300 million in 5.25 percent senior notes with a maturity date of 2021 (the “2021 Notes”) and $400 million in 5.50 percent senior notes with a maturity date of 2023 (the “2023 Notes”).
Subsequent Event
On July 19, 2018, the company fully redeemed the 2021 and 2023 Notes.
7.    INVESTIGATIONS, CLAIMS AND LITIGATION
Litigation
On May 4, 2012, the company commenced an action, Northrop Grumman Systems Corp. v. United States, in the U.S. Court of Federal Claims. This lawsuit relates to an approximately $875 million firm fixed price contract awarded to the company in 2007 by the U.S. Postal Service (USPS) for the construction and delivery of flats sequencing systems (FSS) as part of the postal automation program. The FSS have been delivered. The company’s lawsuit is based on various theories of liability. The complaint seeks approximately $63 million for unpaid portions of the contract price, and approximately $115 million based on the company’s assertions that, through various acts and omissions over the life of the contract, the USPS adversely affected the cost and schedule of performance and materially altered the company’s obligations under the contract. The United States responded to the company’s complaint with an answer, denying most of the company’s claims, and counterclaims seeking approximately $410 million, less certain amounts outstanding under the contract. The principal counterclaim alleges that the company delayed its performance and caused damages to the USPS because USPS did not realize certain costs savings as early as it had expected. On April 2, 2013, the U.S. Department of Justice informed the company of a False Claims Act complaint relating to the FSS contract that was filed under seal by a relator in June 2011 in the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia. On June 3, 2013, the United States filed a Notice informing the Court that the United States had decided not to intervene in this case. The relator alleged that the company violated the False

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NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION                        

Claims Act in a number of ways with respect to the FSS contract, alleged damage to the USPS in an amount of at least approximately $179 million annually, alleged that he was improperly discharged in retaliation, and sought an unspecified partial refund of the contract purchase price, penalties, attorney’s fees and other costs of suit. The relator later voluntarily dismissed his retaliation claim and reasserted it in a separate arbitration, which he also ultimately voluntarily dismissed. On September 5, 2014, the court granted the company’s motion for summary judgment and ordered the relator’s False Claims Act case be dismissed with prejudice. On December 19, 2014, the company filed a motion for partial summary judgment asking the court to dismiss the principal counterclaim referenced above. On June 29, 2015, the Court heard argument and denied that motion without prejudice to filing a later motion to dismiss. On February 16, 2018, both the company and the United States filed motions to dismiss many of the claims and counterclaims in whole or in part. The United States also filed a motion seeking to amend its answer and counterclaim, including to reduce its counterclaim to approximately $193 million, which the court granted on June 11, 2018. Although the ultimate outcome of these matters (“the FSS matters,” collectively), including any possible loss, cannot be predicted or reasonably estimated at this time, the company intends vigorously to pursue and defend the FSS matters.
On August 8, 2013, the company received a court-appointed expert’s report in litigation pending in the Second Federal Court of the Federal District in Brazil brought by the Brazilian Post and Telegraph Corporation (ECT), a Brazilian state-owned entity, against Solystic SAS (Solystic), a French subsidiary of the company, and two of its consortium partners. In this suit, commenced on December 17, 2004, and relatively inactive for some period of time, ECT alleges the consortium breached its contract with ECT and seeks damages of approximately R$111 million (the equivalent of approximately $29 million as of June 30, 2018), plus interest, inflation adjustments and attorneys’ fees, as authorized by Brazilian law, which amounts could be significant over time. The original suit sought R$89 million (the equivalent of approximately $23 million as of June 30, 2018) in damages. In October 2013, ECT asserted an additional damage claim of R$22 million (the equivalent of approximately $6 million as of June 30, 2018). In its counterclaim, Solystic alleges ECT breached the contract by wrongfully refusing to accept the equipment Solystic had designed and built and seeks damages of approximately €31 million (the equivalent of approximately $36 million as of June 30, 2018), plus interest, inflation adjustments and attorneys’ fees, as authorized by Brazilian law. The Brazilian court retained an expert to consider certain issues pending before it. On August 8, 2013 and September 10, 2014, the company received reports from the expert, which contain some recommended findings relating to liability and the damages calculations put forth by ECT. Some of the expert’s recommended findings were favorable to the company and others were favorable to ECT. In November 2014, the parties submitted comments on the expert’s most recent report. On June 16, 2015, the court published a decision denying the parties’ request to present oral testimony. At some future point, the court is expected to issue a decision on the parties’ claims and counterclaims that could accept or reject, in whole or in part, the expert’s recommended findings.
The company previously identified and disclosed to the U.S. government various issues relating primarily to time-charging practices of some employees working on a particular program with remote deployments. The Department of Justice is continuing to investigate this matter, the company is cooperating, and the parties are in discussions. Depending upon the ultimate outcome of this matter, the company could be subject to damages, civil and criminal fines, penalties or other sanctions, and suspension or debarment actions; however, we cannot at this point predict the outcome.
We are engaged in remediation activities relating to environmental conditions allegedly resulting from historic operations at the former United States Navy and Grumman facilities in Bethpage, New York. For over 20 years, we have worked closely with the United States Navy, the United States Environmental Protection Agency, the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, the New York State Department of Health and other federal, state and local governmental authorities, to address legacy environmental conditions in Bethpage. We have incurred, and expect to continue to incur, as included in Note 8, substantial remediation costs related to these environmental conditions. The remediation standards or requirements to which we are subject may change and costs may increase materially. The State of New York has notified us that it intends to seek to impose additional remedial requirements and, among other things, is evaluating natural resource damages. In addition, we are and may become a party to various legal proceedings and disputes related to remediation and/or alleged environmental impacts in Bethpage, including with federal and state entities, local municipalities and water districts, insurance carriers and class action plaintiffs. These Bethpage matters could result in additional costs, fines, penalties, sanctions, compensatory or other damages (including natural resource damages), determinations on allocation, allowability and coverage, and non-monetary relief. We cannot at this time predict or reasonably estimate the potential cumulative outcomes or ranges of possible liability of these aggregate Bethpage matters.

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NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION                        

On August 12, 2016, a putative class action complaint, naming Orbital ATK and two of its then-officers as defendants, Steven Knurr, et al. v. Orbital ATK, Inc., No. 16-cv-01031 (TSE-MSN), was filed in the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia. The complaint asserts claims on behalf of purchasers of Orbital ATK securities for violations of Sections 10(b) and 20(a) of the Exchange Act and Rule 10b-5, allegedly arising out of false and misleading statements and the failure to disclose that: (i) Orbital ATK lacked effective control over financial reporting; and (ii) as a result, it failed to record an anticipated loss on a long-term contract with the U.S. Army to manufacture and supply small caliber ammunition at the U.S. Army's Lake City Army Ammunition Plant. On April 24, 2017 and October 10, 2017, the plaintiffs filed amended complaints naming additional defendants and asserting claims for alleged violations of additional sections of the Exchange Act and alleged false and misleading statements in Orbital ATK’s Form S-4 filed in connection with the Orbital-ATK Merger. The complaint seeks damages, reasonable costs and expenses at trial, including counsel and expert fees, and such other relief as deemed appropriate by the Court. Although the ultimate outcome of this matter, including any possible loss, cannot be predicted or reasonably estimated at this time, the company intends vigorously to defend the matter.
The SEC is investigating Orbital ATK’s historical accounting practices relating to the restatement of Orbital’s unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements for the quarterly periods ended July 5, 2015 and October 4, 2015 described in the Transition Report on Form 10-K for the nine-month period ending December 31, 2015 previously filed on March 15, 2016. The SEC is also investigating matters relating to a voluntary disclosure Orbital ATK made concerning the restatement described in Orbital ATK’s Form 10-K/A for the nine-month period ending December 31, 2015 filed on February 24, 2017. Although the ultimate outcome of these matters, including any possible loss, cannot be predicted or reasonably estimated at this time, the company intends to continue to cooperate with the SEC.
The company is a party to various other investigations, lawsuits, claims, enforcement actions and other legal proceedings, including government investigations and claims, that arise in the ordinary course of our business. The nature of legal proceedings is such that we cannot assure the outcome of any particular matter. However, based on information available to the company to date, the company does not believe that the outcome of any of these other matters pending against the company is likely to have a material adverse effect on the company’s unaudited condensed consolidated financial position as of June 30, 2018, or its annual results of operations and/or cash flows.
8.    COMMITMENTS AND CONTINGENCIES
U.S. Government Cost Claims
From time to time, the company is advised of claims by the U.S. government concerning certain potential disallowed costs, plus, at times, penalties and interest. When such findings are presented, the company and U.S. government representatives engage in discussions to enable the company to evaluate the merits of these claims, as well as to assess the amounts being claimed. Where appropriate, provisions are made to reflect the company’s estimated exposure for such potential disallowed costs. Such provisions are reviewed periodically using the most recent information available. The company believes it has adequately reserved for disputed amounts that are probable and reasonably estimable, and that the outcome of any such matters would not have a material adverse effect on its unaudited condensed consolidated financial position as of June 30, 2018, or its annual results of operations and/or cash flows.
Environmental Matters
The table below summarizes management’s estimate of the range of reasonably possible future costs for environmental remediation, the amount accrued within that range, and the deferred costs expected to be recoverable through overhead charges on U.S. government contracts as of June 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017:
$ in millions
 
Range of Reasonably Possible Future Costs(1)
 
Accrued Costs(2)
 
Deferred Costs(3)
June 30, 2018
 
$453 - $836
 
$
463

 
$
236

December 31, 2017
 
405 - 792
 
410

 
207

(1) 
Estimated remediation costs are not discounted to present value. The range of reasonably possible future costs does not take into consideration amounts expected to be recoverable through overhead charges on U.S. government contracts.
(2) As of June 30, 2018, $155 million is recorded in other current liabilities and $308 million is recorded in other non-current liabilities.
(3) As of June 30, 2018, $79 million is deferred in prepaid expenses and other current assets and $157 million is deferred in other non-current assets. These amounts are evaluated for recoverability on a routine basis.

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NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION                        

As a result of the Merger, we assumed certain environmental remediation liabilities that are included in the accrued costs above, along with the related deferred costs expected to be recoverable on U.S. government contracts.
Although management cannot predict whether new information gained as our environmental remediation projects progress, or as changes in facts and circumstances occur, will materially affect the estimated liability accrued, except with respect to Bethpage, we do not anticipate that future remediation expenditures associated with our currently identified projects will have a material adverse effect on the company’s unaudited condensed consolidated financial position as of June 30, 2018, or its annual results of operations and/or cash flows. With respect to Bethpage, as described in Note 7, we cannot at this time estimate the range of reasonably possible additional future costs that could result from potential changes to remediation standards or requirements to which we are subject.
Financial Arrangements
In the ordinary course of business, the company uses standby letters of credit and guarantees issued by commercial banks and surety bonds issued principally by insurance companies to guarantee the performance on certain obligations. At June 30, 2018, there were $395 million of stand-by letters of credit and guarantees and $211 million of surety bonds outstanding.
Indemnifications
The company has provided indemnification for certain environmental, income tax and other potential liabilities in connection with certain of its divestitures. The settlement of these liabilities is not expected to have a material adverse effect on the company’s unaudited condensed consolidated financial position as of June 30, 2018, or its annual results of operations and/or cash flows.
Operating Leases
Rental expense for operating leases for the three and six months ended June 30, 2018 was $81 million and $173 million, respectively, and was $65 million and $154 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2017, respectively. These amounts are net of immaterial amounts of sublease rental income.
Credit Facilities
In December 2016, a subsidiary of the company entered into a two-year credit facility, with two additional one-year option periods, in an aggregate principal amount of £120 million (the equivalent of approximately $159 million as of June 30, 2018) (the “2016 Credit Agreement”). The company exercised the first option to extend the maturity to December 2019. The 2016 Credit Agreement is guaranteed by the company. At June 30, 2018, there was £90 million (the equivalent of approximately $119 million) outstanding under this facility, which bears interest at a rate of LIBOR plus 1.10 percent. All of the borrowings outstanding under this facility mature less than one year from the date of issuance, but may be renewed under the terms of the facility. Based on our intent and ability to refinance the obligations on a long-term basis, substantially all of the borrowings are classified as non-current.
The company also maintains a five-year unsecured credit facility in an aggregate principal amount of $1.6 billion that matures in July 2020. At June 30, 2018, there was no balance outstanding under this facility.
At June 30, 2018, the company was in compliance with all covenants under its credit agreements.
Commercial Paper
In May 2018, the company commenced a commercial paper program that serves as a source of short-term financing. Under this program, the company may issue up to $750 million of unsecured commercial paper notes. The commercial paper notes outstanding have original maturities of 90 days or less from the date of issuance. At June 30, 2018, there were $249 million of outstanding short-term commercial paper borrowings at a weighted-average interest rate of 2.46 percent.

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NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION                        

9.    RETIREMENT BENEFITS
The cost to the company of its retirement plans is shown in the following table:
 
Three Months Ended June 30
Six Months Ended June 30
 
Pension
Benefits
 
Medical and
Life Benefits
Pension
Benefits
 
Medical and
Life Benefits
$ in millions
2018
 
2017
 
2018
 
2017
2018
 
2017
 
2018
 
2017
Components of net periodic benefit cost
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Service cost
$
100

 
$
97

 
$
5

 
$
6

$
199

 
$
194

 
$
10

 
$
11

Interest cost
300

 
312

 
19

 
21

590

 
625

 
38

 
42

Expected return on plan assets
(544
)
 
(472
)
 
(24
)
 
(23
)
(1,073
)
 
(943
)
 
(49
)
 
(45
)
Amortization of:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Prior service credit
(14
)
 
(14
)
 
(6
)
 
(6
)
(29
)
 
(29
)
 
(11
)
 
(11
)
Net loss from previous years
133

 
191

 

 
4

267

 
382

 

 
7

Net periodic benefit cost
$
(25
)
 
$
114

 
$
(6
)
 
$
2

$
(46
)
 
$
229

 
$
(12
)
 
$
4

Changes in Presentation
As discussed in Note 1, we adopted ASU 2017-07 on January 1, 2018 using the retrospective method, which changed the financial statement presentation of service costs and the other components of net periodic benefit cost. The service cost component continues to be included in operating income; however, the other components are now presented in Net FAS (non-service) pension benefit (expense) in the unaudited condensed consolidated statements of earnings and comprehensive income. In addition, interest on service cost and plan administrative expenses which, in some cases, have historically been included in service cost are now consistently presented in the interest cost and amortization of net actuarial loss components, respectively. As a result, the company reclassified interest on service cost of $4 million and $8 million and plan administrative expenses of $13 million and $26 million from service cost to the interest cost and amortization of net actuarial loss components, respectively, for its pension plans in the three and six months ended June 30, 2017, respectively, to conform to the current year presentation. For the company’s medical and life benefit plans, plan administrative expenses of $1 million and $2 million were reclassified from service cost to the amortization of net actuarial loss component for the three and six months ended June 30, 2017, respectively, to conform to the current year presentation. This change in presentation had no impact on net periodic benefit cost.
Employer Contributions
The company sponsors defined benefit pension and post-retirement plans, as well as defined contribution plans. We fund our defined benefit pension plans annually in a manner consistent with the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended by the Pension Protection Act of 2006, including making voluntary contributions from time to time.
Contributions made by the company to its retirement plans are as follows:
 
Three Months Ended June 30
 
Six Months Ended June 30
$ in millions
2018
 
2017
 
2018
 
2017
Defined benefit pension plans
$
23

 
$
28

 
$
45

 
$
51

Medical and life benefit plans
11

 
13

 
22

 
24

Defined contribution plans
88

 
77

 
192

 
176


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NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION                        

10.    STOCK COMPENSATION PLANS AND OTHER COMPENSATION ARRANGEMENTS
Stock Awards
The following table presents the number of restricted stock rights (RSRs) and restricted performance stock rights (RPSRs) granted to employees under the company's long-term incentive stock plan and the grant date aggregate fair value of those stock awards for the periods presented:
 
 
Six Months Ended June 30
in millions
 
2018
2017
RSRs granted
 
0.1

0.1

RPSRs granted
 
0.2

0.3

Grant date aggregate fair value
 
$
114

$
91

RSRs typically vest on the third anniversary of the grant date, while RPSRs generally vest and pay out based on the achievement of financial metrics over a three-year period.
Cash Awards
The following table presents the minimum and maximum aggregate payout amounts related to cash units (CUs) and cash performance units (CPUs) granted to employees in the periods presented:
 
 
Six Months Ended June 30
$ in millions
 
2018
2017
Minimum aggregate payout amount
 
$
36

$
35

Maximum aggregate payout amount
 
205

198

CUs typically vest and settle in cash on the third anniversary of the grant date, while CPUs generally vest and pay out in cash based on the achievement of financial metrics over a three-year period.

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NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION                        

11.    SEGMENT INFORMATION
The company is aligned in four operating sectors, which also comprise our reportable segments: Aerospace Systems, Innovation Systems, Mission Systems and Technology Services.
The following table presents sales and operating income by segment:
 
Three Months Ended June 30
 
Six Months Ended June 30
$ in millions
2018
 
2017
 
2018
 
2017
Sales
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Aerospace Systems
$
3,337

 
$
3,003

 
$
6,617

 
$
5,987

Innovation Systems
400

 

 
400

 

Mission Systems
2,874

 
2,859

 
5,757

 
5,659

Technology Services
1,048

 
1,162

 
2,192

 
2,352

Intersegment eliminations
(540
)
 
(551
)
 
(1,112
)
 
(1,115
)
Total sales
7,119

 
6,473

 
13,854

 
12,883

Operating income
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Aerospace Systems
357

 
320

 
698

 
643

Innovation Systems
39

 

 
39

 

Mission Systems
352

 
384

 
723

 
743

Technology Services
95

 
125

 
217

 
254

Intersegment eliminations
(64
)
 
(70
)
 
(136
)
 
(140
)
Total segment operating income
779


759

 
1,541

 
1,500

Net FAS (service)/CAS pension adjustment
137

 
154

 
264

 
308

Unallocated corporate expense
(92
)
 
(39
)
 
(126
)
 
(71
)
Other
(1
)
 
(1
)
 
(2
)
 
(2
)
Total operating income
$
823

 
$
873

 
$
1,677

 
$
1,735

Net FAS (Service)/CAS Pension Adjustment
For financial statement purposes, we account for our employee pension plans in accordance with FAS. However, the cost of these plans is charged to our contracts in accordance with the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) and the related U.S. Government Cost Accounting Standards (CAS). The net FAS (service)/CAS pension adjustment reflects the difference between CAS pension expense included as cost in segment operating income and the service cost component of FAS expense included in total operating income. The non-service cost components of FAS expense, which include interest cost, expected return on plan assets, and amortization of prior service credit and net actuarial loss, are presented in Net FAS (non-service) pension benefit (expense) in the unaudited condensed consolidated statements of earnings and comprehensive income as a result of our adoption of ASU 2017-07 discussed in Note 1.
Unallocated Corporate Expense
Unallocated corporate expense includes the portion of corporate costs not considered allowable or allocable under applicable CAS or FAR, and therefore not allocated to the segments, such as a portion of management and administration, legal, environmental, compensation, retiree benefits and other corporate unallowable costs. Unallocated corporate expense also includes costs not considered part of management’s evaluation of segment operating performance, such as amortization of purchased intangible assets.

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NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION                        

Disaggregation of Revenue
Sales by Customer Type
Three Months Ended June 30
 
Six Months Ended June 30
 
2018
 
2017
 
2018
 
2017
$ in millions
$
%(3)
 
$
%(3)
 
$
%(3)
 
$
%(3)
Aerospace Systems
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
U.S. Government (1)
$
2,799

84
%
 
$
2,616

87
%
 
$
5,707

86
%
 
$
5,169

86
%
International (2)
449

13
%
 
272

9
%
 
720

11
%
 
581

10
%
Other Customers
38

1
%
 
40

1
%
 
80

1
%
 
78

1
%
Intersegment sales
51

2
%
 
75

3
%
 
110

2
%
 
159

3
%
Aerospace Systems sales
3,337

100
%
 
3,003

100
%
 
6,617

100
%
 
5,987

100
%
Innovation Systems
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
U.S. Government (1)
265

66
%
 


 
265

66
%
 


International (2)
92

23
%
 


 
92

23
%
 


Other Customers
30

8
%
 


 
30

8
%
 


Intersegment sales
13

3
%
 


 
13

3
%
 


Innovation Systems sales
400

100
%
 


 
400

100
%
 


Mission Systems
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
U.S. Government (1)
2,155

75
%
 
2,227

78
%
 
4,345

76
%
 
4,413

78
%
International (2)
391

14
%
 
353

12
%
 
770

13
%
 
707

12
%
Other Customers
34

1
%
 
33

1
%
 
64

1
%
 
54

1
%
Intersegment sales
294

10
%
 
246

9
%
 
578

10
%
 
485

9
%
Mission Systems sales
2,874

100
%
 
2,859

100
%
 
5,757

100
%
 
5,659

100
%
Technology Services
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
U.S. Government (1)
597

57
%
 
672

58
%
 
1,199

54
%
 
1,308

56
%
International (2)
193

18
%
 
168

14
%
 
413

19
%
 
377

16
%
Other Customers
76

7
%
 
92

8
%
 
169

8
%
 
196

8
%
Intersegment sales
182

18
%
 
230

20
%
 
411

19
%
 
471

20
%
Technology Services sales
1,048

100
%
 
1,162

100
%
 
2,192

100
%
 
2,352

100
%
Total
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
U.S. Government (1)
5,816

82
%
 
5,515

85
%
 
11,516

83
%
 
10,890

84
%
International (2)
1,125

16
%
 
793

12
%
 
1,995

15
%
 
1,665

13
%
Other Customers
178

2
%
 
165

3
%
 
343

2
%
 
328

3
%
Total Sales
$
7,119

100
%
 
$
6,473

100
%
 
$
13,854

100
%
 
$
12,883

100
%
(1) 
Sales to the U.S. government include sales from contracts for which we are the prime contractor, as well as those for which we are a subcontractor and the ultimate customer is the U.S. government. Each of the company's segments derives substantial revenue from the U.S. government.
(2) International sales include sales from contracts for which we are the prime contractor, as well as those for which we are a subcontractor and the ultimate customer is an international customer. These sales include foreign military sales contracted through the U.S. government, direct sales with governments outside the U.S. and commercial sales with customers outside the U.S.
(3) Percentages calculated based on total segment sales.

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NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION                        

Sales by Contract Type
Three Months Ended June 30
 
Six Months Ended June 30
 
2018
 
2017
 
2018
 
2017
$ in millions
$
%(1)
 
$
%(1)
 
$
%(1)
 
$
%(1)
Aerospace Systems
 

 

 
 

 

 
 

 

 
 

 

Cost-type
$
1,934

59
%
 
$
1,840

63
%
 
$
3,836

59
%
 
$
3,667

63
%
Fixed-price
1,352

41
%
 
1,088

37
%
 
2,671

41
%
 
2,161

37
%
Intersegment sales
51

 
 
75

 
 
110

 
 
159

 
Aerospace System sales
3,337

 
 
3,003

 
 
6,617

 
 
5,987

 
Innovation Systems
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cost-type
99

26
%
 


 
99

26
%
 


Fixed-price
288

74
%
 


 
288

74
%
 


Intersegment sales
13

 
 

 
 
13

 
 

 
Innovation System sales
400

 
 

 
 
400

 
 

 
Mission Systems
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cost-type
1,207

47
%
 
1,353

52
%
 
2,486

48
%
 
2,669

52
%
Fixed-price
1,373

53
%
 
1,260

48
%
 
2,693

52
%
 
2,505

48
%
Intersegment sales
294

 
 
246

 
 
578

 
 
485

 
Mission System sales
2,874

 
 
2,859

 
 
5,757

 
 
5,659

 
Technology Services
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cost-type
385

44
%
 
404

43
%
 
822

46
%
 
849

45
%
Fixed-price
481

56
%
 
528

57
%
 
959

54
%
 
1,032

55
%
Intersegment sales
182

 
 
230

 
 
411

 
 
471

 
Technology Services sales
1,048

 
 
1,162

 
 
2,192

 
 
2,352

 
Total
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cost-type
3,625

51
%
 
3,597

56
%
 
7,243

52
%
 
7,185

56
%
Fixed-price
3,494

49
%
 
2,876

44
%
 
6,611

48
%
 
5,698

44
%
Total Sales
$
7,119

 
 
$
6,473

 
 
$
13,854

 
 
$
12,883

 
(1) 
Percentages calculated based on external customer sales.  

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NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION                        

Sales by Geographic Region
Three Months Ended June 30
 
Six Months Ended June 30
 
2018
2017
 
2018
2017
$ in millions
$
%(2)
 
$
%(2)
 
$
%(2)
 
$
%(2)
Aerospace Systems
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
United States
$
2,837

86
%
 
$
2,656

91
%
 
$
5,787

89
%
 
$
5,247

90
%
Asia/Pacific
249

8
%
 
157

5
%
 
378

6
%
 
345

6
%
All other (1)
200

6
%
 
115

4
%
 
342

5
%
 
236

4
%
Intersegment sales
51

 
 
75

 
 
110

 
 
159

 
Aerospace Systems sales
3,337

 
 
3,003

 
 
6,617

 
 
5,987

 
Innovation Systems