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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 
 
FORM 10-K
 
 
     
x
  ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2010
or
o
  TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from          to          
 
Commission file number 1-16411
 
NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 
     
DELAWARE
  95-4840775
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
  (I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
 
1840 Century Park East, Los Angeles, California 90067 (310) 553-6262
(Address and telephone number of principal executive offices)
 
Securities registered pursuant to section 12(b) of the Act:
 
     
Title of each class
 
Name of each exchange on which registered
 
Common Stock, $1 par value
  New York Stock Exchange
 
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.
                                        Yes x No o                                        
 
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act.
                                        Yes o No x                                        
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
                                        Yes x No o                                        
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).
                                        Yes x No o                                        
 
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.  o
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
Large accelerated filer x Accelerated filer o Non-accelerated filer o Smaller reporting company o
                                        (Do not check if a smaller reporting company)
 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).
                                        Yes o No x                                        
 
As of July 2, 2010, the aggregate market value of the common stock (based upon the closing price of the stock on the New York Stock Exchange) of the registrant held by non-affiliates was approximately $14,198 million.
 
As of February 7, 2011, 291,312,990 shares of common stock were outstanding.
 
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
 
Portions of Northrop Grumman Corporation’s Proxy Statement to be filed with the Securities and Exchange
Commission pursuant to Rule 14A for the 2011 Annual Meeting of Stockholders are incorporated by reference in
Part III of this Form 10-K.
 


Table of Contents

 
NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION
 
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
             
       
Page
PART I
       
Item 1.
 
Business
    1  
Item 1A.
 
Risk Factors
    10  
Item 1B.
 
Unresolved Staff Comments
    21  
Item 2.
 
Properties
    22  
Item 3.
 
Legal Proceedings
    23  
       
PART II        
Item 5.
 
Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
    24  
Item 6.
 
Selected Financial Data
    27  
Item 7.
 
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
    28  
   
Overview
    28  
   
Business Acquisitions
    31  
   
Business Dispositions
    31  
   
Contracts
    31  
   
Critical Accounting Policies, Estimates, and Judgments
    32  
   
Consolidated Operating Results
    38  
   
Segment Operating Results
    42  
   
Key Segment Financial Measures
    43  
   
Backlog
    48  
   
Liquidity and Capital Resources
    50  
   
Other Matters
    53  
   
Glossary of Programs
    54  
Item 7a.
 
Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk
    60  
Item 8.
 
Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
    61  
   
Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
    61  
   
Consolidated Statements of Operations
    62  
   
Consolidated Statements of Financial Position
    63  
   
Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows
    64  
   
Consolidated Statements of Changes in Shareholders’ Equity
    66  
   
Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements
    67  
   
1. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
    67  
   
2. Accounting Standards Updates
    73  
   
3. Dividends on Common Stock and Conversion of Preferred Stock
    73  
   
4. Earnings (Loss) Per Share
    73  
   
5. Business Acquisitions
    74  
   
6. Business Dispositions
    74  
   
7. Shipbuilding Strategic Actions
    75  
   
8. Segment Information
    76  
   
9. Accounts Receivable, Net
    79  


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Page
   
10. Inventoried Costs, Net
    80  
   
11. Income Taxes
    80  
   
12. Goodwill and Other Purchased Intangible Assets
    83  
   
13. Fair Value of Financial Instruments
    85  
   
14. Notes Payable to Banks and Long-Term Debt
    86  
   
15. Investigations, Claims and Litigation
    87  
   
16. Commitments and Contingencies
    91  
   
17. Retirement Benefits
    94  
   
18. Stock Compensation Plans
    101  
   
19. Unaudited Selected Quarterly Data
    105  
Item 9.
 
Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure
    106  
Item 9a.
 
Controls and Procedures
    106  
Item 9b.
 
Other Information
    106  
   
Management’s Report on Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
    107  
   
Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm
    108  
       
PART III        
Item 10.
 
Directors, Executive Officers, and Corporate Governance
    109  
Item 11.
 
Executive Compensation
    111  
Item 12.
 
Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters
    111  
Item 13.
 
Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence
    111  
Item 14.
 
Principal Accountant Fees and Services
    111  
       
PART IV        
Item 15.
 
Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules
    111  
   
Signatures
    119  
 EX-3.(b)
 EX-10.H.(XVI
 EX-10.(i).(v)
 EX-10.(k)
 EX-10.(l)
 EX-10.(n)
 EX-10.(q)
 EX-10.(u)
 EX-10.(x)
 EX-10.(bb)
 EX-10.(qq)
 EX-12.(a)
 EX-21
 EX-23
 EX-24
 EX-31.1
 EX-31.2
 EX-32.1
 EX-32.2
 EX-101 INSTANCE DOCUMENT
 EX-101 SCHEMA DOCUMENT
 EX-101 CALCULATION LINKBASE DOCUMENT
 EX-101 LABELS LINKBASE DOCUMENT
 EX-101 PRESENTATION LINKBASE DOCUMENT
 EX-101 DEFINITION LINKBASE DOCUMENT


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NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION
 
PART I
 
Item 1.  Business
 
HISTORY AND ORGANIZATION
 
History
Northrop Grumman Corporation (herein referred to as “Northrop Grumman”, the “company”, “we”, “us”, or “our”) is an integrated enterprise consisting of businesses that address the global security spectrum, from undersea to outer space and into cyberspace. The companies that are part of today’s Northrop Grumman have achieved historic accomplishments, from transporting Charles Lindbergh across the Atlantic to carrying astronauts to the moon’s surface and back.
 
The company was originally formed as Northrop Corporation in California in 1939 and was reincorporated in Delaware in 1985. From 1994 through 2002, we entered a period of significant expansion through acquisitions of other businesses, most notably:
 
n    In 1994, Northrop Corporation acquired Grumman Corporation (Grumman) and was renamed Northrop Grumman Corporation. Grumman was a premier military aircraft systems integrator and builder of the Lunar Module that first delivered men to the surface of the moon.
 
n    In 1996, we acquired the defense and electronics businesses of Westinghouse Electric Corporation, a world leader in the development and production of sophisticated radar and other electronic systems for the nation’s defense, civil aviation, and other international and domestic applications.
 
n    In 2001, we acquired Litton Industries (Litton), a global electronics and information technology enterprise, and one of the nation’s leading full-service design, engineering, construction, and life cycle supporters of major surface ships for the United States (U.S.) Navy, U.S. Coast Guard, and international navies.
 
n    Also in 2001, we acquired Newport News Shipbuilding (Newport News). Newport News is the nation’s sole designer, builder and refueler of nuclear-powered aircraft carriers and one of only two companies designing and building nuclear-powered submarines.
 
n    In 2002, we acquired TRW Inc. (TRW), a leading developer of military and civil space systems and satellite payloads, as well as a leading global integrator of complex, mission-enabling systems and services.
 
Since 2002, other notable acquisitions include Integic Corporation (2005), an information technology provider specializing in enterprise health and business process management solutions and Essex Corporation (2007), a signal processing product and services provider to U.S. intelligence and defense customers. In addition, we divested our Advisory Services Division, TASC, Inc., in 2009. See Business Acquisitions and Business Dispositions in Part II. Item 7.
 
These and other transactions have shaped us into our present position as a premier provider of technologically advanced, innovative products, services and solutions in aerospace, electronics, information and services and shipbuilding. As prime contractor, principal subcontractor, partner, or preferred supplier, we participate in many high-priority defense and commercial technology programs in the U.S. and abroad. We conduct most of our business with the U.S. Government, principally the Department of Defense (DoD). We also conduct business with local, state, and foreign governments, and domestic and international commercial customers. For a discussion of risks associated with our DoD and foreign operations, see Risk Factors in Part I, Item 1A.
 
Organization
From time to time, we acquire or dispose of businesses, and realign contracts, programs or business areas among and within our operating segments that possess similar customers, expertise, and capabilities. Internal realignments are designed to more fully leverage existing capabilities and enhance development and delivery of products and services. The operating results for all periods presented have been revised to reflect these changes made through December 31, 2010.


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NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION
 
As of December 31, 2010, we are aligned into five operating segments: Aerospace Systems, Electronic Systems, Information Systems, Shipbuilding, and Technical Services. See Note 8 to our consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8.
 
Strategic Actions
In July 2010, we announced that we would evaluate whether a separation of the Shipbuilding segment would be in the best interests of shareholders, customers, and employees by allowing both the company and Shipbuilding to more effectively pursue their respective opportunities to maximize long-term value. As of December 31, 2010, management anticipates that a spin-off of the Shipbuilding segment to our shareholders will likely occur in 2011. Since any final decision remains subject to approval by our Board of Directors, Shipbuilding’s financial results are reported in continuing operations. See Note 7 to our consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8.
 
AEROSPACE SYSTEMS
 
Aerospace Systems, headquartered in Redondo Beach, California, is a leading designer, developer, integrator and producer of manned and unmanned aircraft, spacecraft, high-energy laser systems, microelectronics and other systems and subsystems critical to maintaining the nation’s security and leadership in technology. Aerospace Systems’ customers, primarily government agencies, use these systems in many different mission areas including intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance; communications; battle management; strike operations; electronic warfare; missile defense; earth observation; space science; and space exploration. The segment consists of four business areas: Strike & Surveillance Systems, Space Systems, Battle Management & Engagement Systems, and Advanced Programs & Technology.
 
Strike & Surveillance Systems – designs, develops, manufactures and integrates tactical and long-range strike aircraft systems, unmanned systems, and missile systems. These include the RQ-4 Global Hawk unmanned reconnaissance system, B-2 stealth bomber, F-35 Lightning II, F/A-18 Super Hornet strike fighter, Minuteman III Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM), MQ-8B Fire Scout unmanned aircraft system, Multi-Platform Radar Technology Insertion Program (MP-RTIP), and aerial targets.
 
Space Systems – designs, develops, manufactures, and integrates spacecraft systems, subsystems and electronic and communications payloads.  Major programs include the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), Advanced Extremely High Frequency (AEHF) payload, Space Tracking and Surveillance System (STSS) and many restricted programs.
 
Battle Management & Engagement Systems – designs, develops, manufactures, and integrates airborne early warning, surveillance, battlefield management, and electronic warfare systems. Key programs include the E-2 Hawkeye, Joint Surveillance Target Attack Radar System (Joint STARS), Broad Area Maritime Surveillance (BAMS) unmanned aircraft system, Long Endurance Multi Intelligence Vehicle (LEMV), the EA-6B Prowler, and its next generation platform, the EA-18G Growler.
 
Advanced Programs & Technology – creates advanced technologies and concepts to satisfy existing and emerging customer needs. This business area matures these technologies and concepts to create and capture new programs that other Aerospace Systems business areas can execute. Existing programs include the Navy Unmanned Combat Air System (N-UCAS), the Airborne Laser Test Bed (ALTB), and other directed energy and advanced concepts programs.
 
ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS
 
Electronic Systems, headquartered in Linthicum, Maryland, is a leader in the design, development, manufacture, and support of solutions for sensing, understanding, anticipating, and controlling the environment for our global military, civil, and commercial customers and their operations. Electronic Systems provides a variety of defense electronics and systems, airborne fire control radars, situational awareness systems, early warning systems, airspace management systems, navigation systems, communications systems, marine systems, space systems, and logistics


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NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION
 
services. The segment consists of five business areas: Intelligence, Surveillance, & Reconnaissance Systems; Land & Self Protection Systems; Naval & Marine Systems; Navigation Systems; and Targeting Systems.
 
Intelligence, Surveillance & Reconnaissance (ISR) Systems – delivers products and services for space satellite applications, airborne and ground based surveillance, multi-sensor processing and analysis to provide battlespace awareness, missile defense, and command and control. The division also develops advanced space-based radar and electro-optical early warning and surveillance systems for strategic, tactical, and weather operations along with systems for enhancing the discovery, sharing, and exploitation of ISR data. Key products include the Space Based Infrared System (SBIRS), Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP), Defense Support Program (DSP), ground processing, exploitation and dissemination systems, the TPS-78/703 family of ground based surveillance radars, and the Multi-role Electronically Scanned Array (MESA) radar.
 
Land & Self Protection Systems – delivers products, systems, and services that support ground-based, helicopter and fixed wing platforms (manned and unmanned) with sensor and protection systems. These systems perform threat detection and countermeasures that defeat infrared and radio frequency (RF) guided missile and tracking systems. The division also provides integrated electronic warfare capability, communications, and intelligence systems; unattended ground sensors; automatic test equipment; and advanced threat simulators. Key programs include the U.S. Marine Corps Ground/Air Task Oriented Radar (G/ATOR) multi-mission radar; the Large Aircraft Infrared Countermeasures (LAIRCM) system for the U.S. Air Force, U.S. Navy, and strategic international and NATO allies; the AN/ALQ-131(V) electronic countermeasures pods; the LR-100 high-performance radar warning receiver (RWR)/electronic support measures (ESM)/electronic intelligence (ELINT) receiver system; the U.S. Army’s STARLite synthetic aperture radar for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs); the U.S. Army Vehicle Intercom Systems (VIC 3 and VIC-5); the U.S. Army Next Generation Automated Test System (NGATS); the U.S. Air Force Joint Threat Emitter (JTE) training range system; and the Vehicle and Dismount Exploitation Radar (VADER) system that enables UAVs to track individual persons or vehicles.
 
Naval & Marine Systems – delivers products and services to defense, civil, and commercial markets supporting smart navigation, shipboard radar surveillance, ship control, machinery control, integrated combat management systems for naval surface ships, high-resolution undersea sensors (for mine hunting, situational awareness, and other applications), unmanned marine vehicles, shipboard missile and encapsulated payload launch systems, propulsion and power generation systems, and nuclear reactor instrumentation and control. Key products include integrated bridge and navigation systems, voyage management system, integrated platform management systems, integrated combat Management System, AN/WSN 7 Gyro Navigator, anti-ship missile defense and surveillance radars (Cobra Judy, AN/SPQ 9B, AN/SPS 74), and propulsion equipment and missile launch systems for the Virginia-class submarines.
 
Navigation Systems – delivers products and services to defense, civil, and commercial markets supporting situational awareness, inertial navigation in all domains (air, land, sea, and space), embedded Global Positioning Systems, Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) systems, acoustic sensors, cockpit video monitors, mission computing, and integrated avionics and electronics systems. Key products include the Integrated Avionics System, the AN/TYQ-23 Aircraft Command and Control System, Fiber Optic Acoustic Sensors, and a robust portfolio of inertial sensors and navigation systems.
 
Targeting Systems – delivers products and services supporting airborne combat avionics (fire control radars, multi-function apertures and pods), airborne electro-optical/infrared targeting systems, and laser/electro-optical systems including hand-held, tripod-mounted, and ground or air vehicle mounted systems. Key products include fire control radars for the B-1B, F-16 (worldwide), F-22 U.S. Air Force, and F-35; the AN/APN 241 navigation/weather radar; the AN/AAQ 28(V) LITENING family of targeting pods; Distributed Aperture EO/IR systems; and the Lightweight Laser Designator Rangefinder (LLDR).
 
In addition to the product and service lines discussed above, the Electronic Systems segment includes the Advanced Concepts & Technologies Division (AC&TD), an organization that develops next-generation systems, technologies, and architectures to position the segment in key developing markets. AC&TD focuses on


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NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION
 
understanding customer mission needs, conceiving affordable solutions, and demonstrating the readiness and effectiveness of Electronic Systems’ products, including all types of sensors, microsystems, and associated information systems. The segment uses a “Product Ownership” approach, which guides the transition of new technology from laboratory to market and implements multi-function modular open systems architecture product families that are readily reconfigurable and scalable to support new requirements, new products or component obsolescence.
 
INFORMATION SYSTEMS
 
Information Systems, headquartered in McLean, Virginia, is a leading global provider of advanced solutions for the DoD, national intelligence, federal civilian, state and local agencies, and commercial customers. Products and services are focused on the fields of command, control, communications, computers and intelligence; air and missile defense; airborne reconnaissance; intelligence processing; decision support systems; cybersecurity; information technology; and systems engineering and integration. The segment consists of three business areas: Defense Systems; Intelligence Systems; and Civil Systems.
 
Defense Systems – is a major end-to-end provider of net-enabled Battle Management C4ISR systems, decision superiority, and mission-enabling solutions and services in support of the national defense and security of our nation and its allies. The division is a prime developer and integrator of many of the DoD’s programs-of-record, particularly for command and control and communications for the U.S. Air Force, U.S. Army, U.S. Navy, and Joint Forces. Major products and services include Enterprise Infrastructure and Applications, Mission Systems Integration, Military Communications & Networks, Battle Management C2 and Decision Support Systems, Global and Operational C2, Ground and Maritime Combat Systems, Air and Missile Defense, Combat Support Solutions and Services, Defense Logistics Automation, and Force and Critical Infrastructure Protection. Systems are installed in operational and command centers world-wide and across all DoD services and joint commands.
 
Intelligence Systems – is focused on the delivery of world-class systems and services to the U.S. intelligence community. Major offerings include Studies & Analysis, Systems Development, Enterprise IT, Prime Systems Integration, Products, Sustainment, and Operations and Maintenance. The division focuses on several mission areas including Airborne ISR, Geospatial Intelligence, Ground Systems, Integrated Intelligence and dynamic Cyber defense. Sustaining and growing the business in today’s market mandates sharing meaningful information across agencies through development of cost effective systems that are responsive to mutual requirements. Intelligence Systems is also creating new responsive capabilities leveraging existing systems to provide solutions to customer needs through labs and integration centers.
 
Civil Systems – provides specialized information systems and services in support of critical government civil missions, such as homeland security, public health, cyber security, air traffic management and public safety. Primary customers are federal civilian, state and local agencies, and the U.S. Postal Service. Civil Systems develops and implements solutions that combine a deep understanding of civil government domains with core expertise in prime systems integration, enterprise applications development, and high value IT services including cyber security, identity management and advanced network communications.
 
SHIPBUILDING
 
Shipbuilding, headquartered in Newport News, Virginia, is the nation’s sole industrial designer, builder and refueler of nuclear-powered aircraft carriers, the sole supplier and builder of amphibious assault and expeditionary warfare ships to the U.S. Navy, the sole builder of National Security Cutters for the U.S. Coast Guard, and one of only two companies that builds the U.S. Navy’s current fleet of DDG-51 Arleigh Burke-class destroyers. Shipbuilding is also a full-service systems provider for the design, engineering, construction and life cycle support of major programs for surface ships and a provider of fleet support and maintenance services for the U.S. Navy. The segment consists of seven business areas: Aircraft Carriers; Expeditionary Warfare; Surface Combatants; Submarines; Coast Guard & Coastal Defense; Fleet Support; and Services & Other.


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NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION
 
Aircraft Carriers – Shipbuilding is the nation’s sole industrial designer, builder, and refueler of nuclear-powered aircraft carriers. The U.S. Navy’s newest carrier and the last of the Nimitz-class, the USS George H. W. Bush, was delivered in May 2009. Design work on the next generation carrier, the Ford-class has been underway for over eight years. The Ford-class incorporates transformational technologies including an enhanced flight deck with increased sortie rates, improved weapons movement, a redesigned island, a new nuclear power plant design, flexibility to incorporate future technologies, and reduced manning. In 2008, Shipbuilding was awarded a $5.1 billion contract for construction of the first ship of the class, the Gerald R. Ford, which is scheduled for delivery in 2015. The segment also provides ongoing maintenance for the U.S. Navy aircraft carrier fleet through overhaul, refueling, and repair work. In 2009, the completion of the refueling and complex overhaul of the USS Carl Vinson was followed by the arrival of the USS Theodore Roosevelt, which is expected to be redelivered to the U.S. Navy following its refueling in early 2013.
 
Expeditionary Warfare – Shipbuilding is the sole provider of amphibious assault ships for the U.S. Navy. In 2009, construction of the Wasp class multipurpose amphibious assault ship was concluded with the delivery of LHD 8. Construction of the San Antonio-class continues, with five ships delivered from 2005 to 2009 and four currently in construction. In 2007, Shipbuilding was awarded the construction contract for LHA 6, the first in a new class of enhanced amphibious assault ships. The first ship of the America-class ships is currently under construction and is expected to join the fleet in 2013.
 
Surface Combatants – Shipbuilding designs and constructs Arleigh Burke-class Aegis-guided missile destroyers, as well as major components for the Zumwalt-class, a land attack destroyer. Shipbuilding has delivered 26 Arleigh Burke destroyers to the U.S. Navy, currently has one under construction, and was awarded a long-lead time material contract for a restart of the Arleigh Burke-class in December 2009. Shipbuilding’s participation in the Zumwalt program includes detailed design and construction of the ships’ integrated composite deckhouses, as well as portions of the ships’ peripheral vertical launch systems.
 
Submarines – Shipbuilding is one of only two U.S. companies that designs and builds nuclear-powered submarines. In February 1997, the company and Electric Boat, a wholly owned subsidiary of General Dynamics Corporation, reached an agreement to cooperatively build Virginia-class nuclear attack submarines. The initial four submarines in the class were delivered in 2004, 2006, and 2008. The construction contract for the second block of six Virginia-class submarines was awarded in August 2003 and the first two submarines under this contract were delivered in 2008 and 2009. Construction on the remaining four submarines is underway, with the last scheduled to be delivered in 2014. In December 2008, the construction contract for the third block of eight Virginia-class submarines was awarded. The multi-year contract allowed Shipbuilding and its teammate to proceed with the construction of one submarine per year in 2009 and 2010, and allows for the construction of two submarines per year from 2011 to 2013. The eighth submarine to be procured under this contract is scheduled for delivery in 2019.
 
Coast Guard & Coastal Defense – Shipbuilding is a joint venture partner along with Lockheed Martin for the Coast Guard’s Deepwater Modernization Program. Shipbuilding has design and production responsibility for surface ships. In 2006, the Shipbuilding/Lockheed Martin joint venture was awarded a 43-month contract extension for the Deepwater program. The first National Security Cutter (NSC), USCGC Berthoff, was delivered to the Coast Guard in 2008 followed by the USCGC Waesche (NSC-2) in 2009. The Stratton (NSC-3) is currently in construction. The construction contract for NSC-4 was awarded in November 2010.
 
Fleet Support – Fleet Support provides after-market services, including on-going maintenance and repair work, for a wide array of naval and commercial vessels. Shipbuilding has ship repair facilities in the U.S. Navy’s largest homeports of Norfolk, Virginia, and San Diego, California.
 
Services & Other – Shipbuilding provides various services to commercial nuclear and non-nuclear industrial customers. In January 2008, Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, a joint venture among Shipbuilding, Fluor Corporation, and Honeywell, was awarded a contract for site management and operations of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. In October 2008, Shipbuilding


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NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION
 
announced the formation of a joint venture with AREVA NP to build a new manufacturing and engineering facility in Newport News, Virginia to help supply the growing American nuclear energy sector.
 
TECHNICAL SERVICES
 
Technical Services, headquartered in Herndon, Virginia, is a provider of logistics, infrastructure, and sustainment support, while also providing a wide array of technical services including training and simulation. The segment consists of three business areas: Defense and Government Services; Training Solutions, and Integrated Logistics and Modernization.
 
Defense and Government Services – provides logistics, maintenance and reconstitution services, as well as civil engineering work, aerial and ground range operations in support of the military, technical support functions which include space launch services, construction, protective and emergency services, and range-sensor-instrumentation operations. Primary customers include the Department of Energy (DoE), the DoD, the Department of Homeland Security, and the U.S. intelligence community, in both domestic and international locations.
 
Training Solutions – provides training across the live, virtual and constructive domains to both the U.S. military and International peacekeeping forces, designs and develops future conflict training scenarios, and provides U.S. warfighters and allies with tactics, techniques and procedures to be successful on the battlefield. This business area also offers diverse training applications ranging from battle command to professional military education. Primary customers include the DoD, Department of State, and Department of Homeland Security.
 
Integrated Logistics and Modernization – provides life cycle product support and weapons system sustainment. This business area is focused on providing Performance Based Logistical support to the warfighter including supply chain management services, warehousing and inventory transportation, field services and mobilization, sustaining engineering, maintenance, repair and overhaul, and ongoing weapon maintenance and technical assistance. The group specializes in performing Contractor Logistics Support of both original equipment manufacturer (OEM) and third party aviation platforms involving maintenance, modification, modernization and rebuilding essential parts and assemblies. Primary customers include the DoD as well as international military and commercial customers.
 
Corporate
Our principal executive offices are located at 1840 Century Park East, Los Angeles, California 90067. Our telephone number is (310) 553-6262 and our home page on the Internet is www.northropgrumman.com.  References to our website in this report are provided as a convenience and do not constitute, and should not be viewed as, incorporation by reference of the information contained on, or available through, the website. Therefore, such information should not be considered part of this report. See Properties in Part I, Item 2.
 
SUMMARY SEGMENT FINANCIAL DATA
 
For a more complete understanding of our segment financial information, see Segment Operating Results in Part II, Item 7, and Note 8 to the consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8.
 
CUSTOMERS AND REVENUE CONCENTRATION
 
Our primary customer is the U.S. Government. Revenue from the U.S. Government (which includes Foreign Military Sales) accounted for approximately 92 percent of total revenues in 2010, 2009, and 2008. No single product or service accounted for more than ten percent of total revenue during any period presented. See Risk Factors in Part I, Item 1A.


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NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION
 
PATENTS
 
The following table summarizes the number of patents we own or have pending as of December 31, 2010:
 
                         
    Owned   Pending   Total
U.S. patents
    3,192       329       3,521  
Foreign patents
    2,355       553       2,908  
                         
Total
    5,547       882       6,429  
                         
 
Patents developed while under contract with the U.S. Government may be subject to use by the U.S. Government. We license intellectual property to, and from, third parties. We believe our ability to conduct operations would not be materially affected by the loss of any particular intellectual property right. See Risk Factors in Part I, Item 1A.
 
SEASONALITY
 
No material portion of our business is considered to be seasonal. Our revenue recognition timing is based on several factors, including the timing of contract awards, the incurrence of contract costs, cost estimation, and unit deliveries. See Critical Accounting Policies, Estimates, and Judgments – Revenue Recognition in Part II, Item 7.
 
BACKLOG
 
At December 31, 2010, total backlog was $64.2 billion compared with $69.2 billion at the end of 2009. Approximately 47 percent of backlog at December 31, 2010, is expected to be converted into sales in 2011.
 
Total backlog includes both funded backlog (firm orders for which funding is contractually obligated by the customer) and unfunded backlog (firm orders for which funding is not currently contractually obligated by the customer). Unfunded backlog excludes unexercised contract options and unfunded indefinite delivery indefinite quantity (IDIQ) orders. For multi-year services contracts with non-federal government customers having no stated contract values, backlog includes only the amounts committed by the customer. Backlog is converted into sales as work is performed or deliveries are made. For backlog by segment see Backlog in Part II, Item 7.
 
RAW MATERIALS
 
The most significant raw material we require is steel, used primarily for shipbuilding. We have mitigated some supply risk by negotiating long-term agreements with a number of steel suppliers. In addition, we have mitigated price risk related to steel purchases through certain contractual arrangements with the U.S. Government. While we have generally been able to obtain key raw materials required in our production processes in a timely manner, a significant delay in supply deliveries could have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial position, results of operations, or cash flows. See Risk Factors in Part I, Item 1A and Overview – Outlook in Part II, Item 7.
 
GOVERNMENT REGULATION
 
Our businesses are affected by numerous laws and regulations relating to the award, administration and performance of U.S. Government contracts. See Risk Factors in Part I, Item 1A.
 
The U.S. Government generally has the ability to terminate our contracts, in whole or in part, without prior notice, for convenience or for default based on performance. If any of our U.S. Government contracts were to be terminated for convenience, we would generally be protected by provisions covering reimbursement for costs incurred on the contracts and profit on those costs, but not the anticipated profit that would have been earned had the contract been completed. In the rare circumstance where a U.S. Government contract does not have such termination protection, we attempt to mitigate the termination risk through other means. Termination resulting from our default may expose us to liability and could have a material adverse effect on our ability to compete for contracts. See Risk Factors in Part I, Item 1A.


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Certain programs with the U.S. Government that are prohibited by the customer from being publicly discussed in detail are referred to as “restricted” in this Form 10-K. The consolidated financial statements and financial information in this Form 10-K reflect the operating results of restricted programs under accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (GAAP). See Risk Factors in Part I, Item 1A.
 
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
 
Our research and development activities primarily include independent research and development (IR&D) efforts related to government programs. IR&D expenses are included in general and administrative expenses and are generally allocated to U.S. Government contracts. IR&D expenses totaled $603 million, $610 million, and $564 million in 2010, 2009, and 2008, respectively. We charge expenses for research and development sponsored by the customer directly to the related contracts.
 
EMPLOYEE RELATIONS
 
We believe that we maintain good relations with our 117,100 employees, of which approximately 20 percent are covered by 32 collective bargaining agreements. We negotiated or re-negotiated twelve of our collective bargaining agreements in 2010. These negotiations had no material adverse effect on our results of operations. For risks associated with collective bargaining agreements, see Risk Factors in Part I, Item 1A.
 
ENVIRONMENTAL MATTERS
 
Our manufacturing operations are subject to and affected by federal, state, foreign, and local laws and regulations relating to the protection of the environment. We provide for the estimated cost to complete environmental remediation where we determine it is probable that we will incur such costs in the future to address environmental impacts at currently or formerly owned or leased operating facilities, or at sites where we are named a Potentially Responsible Party (PRP) by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) or similarly designated by other environmental agencies. These estimates may change given the inherent difficulty in estimating environmental cleanup costs to be incurred in the future due to the uncertainties regarding the extent of the required cleanup, determination of legally responsible parties, and the status of laws, regulations, and their interpretations.
 
We assess the potential impact on our financial statements by estimating the possible remediation costs that we could reasonably incur on a site-by-site basis. These estimates consider our environmental engineers’ professional judgment and, when necessary, we consult with outside environmental specialists. In most instances, we can only estimate a range of reasonably possible costs. We accrue our best estimate when determinable or the minimum amount when no single amount is more probable. We record accruals for environmental cleanup costs in the accounting period in which it becomes probable we have incurred a liability and the costs can be reasonably estimated. We record insurance recoveries only when we determine that collection is probable. Our environmental remediation accruals do not include any litigation costs related to environmental matters, nor do they include any amounts recorded as asset retirement obligations.
 
We estimate that at December 31, 2010, the range of reasonably possible future costs for environmental remediation sites is $280 million to $674 million, of which we accrued $109 million in other current liabilities and $207 million in other long-term liabilities in the consolidated statements of financial position. We record environmental accruals on an undiscounted basis. At sites involving multiple parties, we provide environmental accruals based upon our expected share of liability, taking into account the financial viability of other jointly liable parties. We expense or capitalize environmental expenditures as appropriate. Capitalized expenditures relate to long-lived improvements in currently operating facilities. We may have to incur costs in addition to those already estimated and accrued if other PRPs do not pay their allocable share of remediation costs, which could have a material effect on our consolidated financial position, results of operations, or cash flows. We have made the investments we believe necessary to comply with environmental laws.


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We could be affected by future laws or regulations, including those enacted in response to climate change concerns and other actions known as “green initiatives.” We established a goal of reducing our greenhouse gas emissions over a five-year period through December 31, 2014. To comply with existing green initiatives and our greenhouse gas emissions goal, we expect to incur capital and operating costs, but at this time we do not expect that such costs will have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
 
COMPETITIVE CONDITIONS
 
We compete with many companies in the U.S. defense industry and the information and services markets for a number of programs, both large and small. In the U.S. defense industry, Lockheed Martin Corporation, The Boeing Company, Raytheon Company, General Dynamics Corporation, L-3 Communications Corporation, SAIC, and BAE Systems Inc. are our primary competitors. Intense competition and long operating cycles are both key characteristics of our business and the defense industry. It is common in the defense industry for work on major programs to be shared among a number of companies. A company competing to be a prime contractor may, upon ultimate award of the contract to another competitor, become a subcontractor for the ultimate prime contracting company. It is not unusual to compete for a contract award with a peer company and, simultaneously, perform as a supplier to or a customer of that same competitor on other contracts, or vice versa. The nature of major defense programs, conducted under binding contracts, allows companies that perform well to benefit from a level of program continuity not frequently found in other industries.
 
Our success in the competitive defense industry depends upon our ability to develop and market our products and services, as well as our ability to provide the people, technologies, facilities, equipment, and financial capacity needed to deliver those products and services affordably and efficiently. Like most of our competitors, we are vertically integrated but also have a high reliance on the supply chain. We must continue to maintain dependable sources for raw materials, fabricated parts, electronic components, and major subassemblies. In this increasingly complex manufacturing and systems integration environment, effective oversight of subcontractors and suppliers is vital to our success.
 
Similarly, there is intense competition among many companies in the information and services markets, which are generally more labor intensive with highly competitive margin rates and contract performance periods of shorter duration. Competitors in the information and services markets include the defense industry participants mentioned above as well as many other large and small entities with specialized expertise. Our ability to successfully compete in the information and services markets depends on a number of factors. The most important factor is the ability to deploy skilled professionals, many requiring security clearances, at competitive prices across the diverse spectrum of these markets. Accordingly, we have implemented various workforce initiatives to ensure our success in attracting, developing and retaining these skilled professionals in sufficient numbers to maintain or improve our competitive position within these markets.
 
In both the U.S. defense industry and information and services markets, the federal government has recently indicated that it intends to increase industry competition for its future procurement of products and services. This may lead to fewer sole source awards and more emphasis on cost competitiveness and affordability than in the past. In addition, the DoD has announced several initiatives to improve efficiency, refocus priorities and enhance DoD best practices including those used to procure goods and services from defense contractors. See Overview in Part II, Item 7, and Risk Factors in Part I, Item 1A. These new initiatives, when implemented, could result in fewer new opportunities for our industry as a whole, and a reduced opportunity set would in turn intensify competition within the industry as companies compete for a more limited set of new programs.
 
EXECUTIVE OFFICERS
 
See Part III, Item 10, for information about our executive officers.


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AVAILABLE INFORMATION
 
Throughout this Form 10-K, we incorporate by reference information from parts of other documents filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). The SEC allows us to disclose important information by referring to it in this manner, and you should review this information in addition to the information contained in this report.
 
Our annual report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and proxy statement for the annual shareholders’ meeting, as well as any amendments to those reports, are available free of charge through our web site as soon as reasonably practicable after we file them with the SEC. You can learn more about us by reviewing our SEC filings in the investor relations page on our web site at www.northropgrumman.com.
 
The SEC also maintains a web site at www.sec.gov that contains reports, proxy statements and other information about SEC registrants, including Northrop Grumman. You may also obtain these materials at the SEC’s Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549. You can obtain information on the operation of the Public Reference Room by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330.
 
Item 1A. Risk Factors
 
Our consolidated financial position, results of operations and cash flows are subject to various risks, many of which are not exclusively within our control, that may cause actual performance to differ materially from historical or projected future performance. We urge you to carefully consider the risk factors described below in evaluating the information contained in this report.
 
n    We depend heavily on a single customer, the U.S. Government, for a substantial portion of our business, including programs subject to security classification restrictions on information, and changes affecting this customer’s ability to do business with us could have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations, or cash flows.
 
The funding of U.S. Government programs is subject to congressional budget authorization and appropriation processes. For many programs, Congress appropriates funds on a fiscal year basis even though a program may extend over several fiscal years. Consequently, programs are often only partially funded initially and additional funds are committed only as Congress makes further appropriations. We cannot predict the extent to which total funding and/or funding for individual programs will be included, increased or reduced as part of the 2011 and subsequent budgets ultimately approved by Congress or be included in the scope of separate supplemental appropriations. The entire federal government is currently funded under a Continuing Resolution until March 4, 2011. The impact, severity and duration of the current U.S. economic situation, the sweeping economic plans adopted by the U.S. Government, and pressures on the federal budget could also adversely affect the total funding and/or funding for individual programs. In the event that appropriations for any of our programs becomes unavailable, or is reduced or delayed, our contract or subcontract under such program may be terminated or adjusted by the U.S. Government, which could have a material adverse effect on our future sales under such program, and on our financial position, results of operations, or cash flows.
 
We also cannot predict the impact of potential changes in priorities due to military transformation and planning and/or the nature of war-related activity on existing, follow-on or replacement programs. A shift of government priorities to programs in which we do not participate and/or reductions in funding for or the termination of programs in which we do participate, unless offset by other programs and opportunities, could have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations, or cash flows.
 
In addition, the U.S. Government generally has the ability to terminate contracts, in whole or in part, without prior notice, for convenience or for default based on performance. In the event of termination for the U.S. Government’s convenience, contractors are generally protected by provisions covering


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reimbursement for costs incurred on the contracts and profit on those costs but not the anticipated profit that would have been earned had the contract been completed. In the rare circumstance where a U.S. government contract does not have such termination protection, we attempt to mitigate the termination risk through other means. To the extent such means are unavailable or do not fully address the costs incurred or profit on those costs, we could face significant losses from the termination for convenience of a contract that lacks termination protection. Termination by the U.S. Government of a contract for convenience could also result in the cancellation of future work on that program. Termination by the U.S. Government of a contract due to our default could require us to pay for re-procurement costs in excess of the original contract price, net of the value of work accepted from the original contract. Termination of a contract due to our default may expose us to liability and could have a material adverse effect on our ability to compete for contracts.
 
n    As a U.S. Government contractor, we are subject to a number of procurement regulations and could be adversely affected by changes in regulations or any negative findings from a U.S. Government audit or investigation.
 
U.S. Government contractors must comply with many significant procurement regulations and other requirements. These regulations and requirements, although customary in government contracts, increase our performance and compliance costs. If any such regulations or procurement requirements change, our costs of complying with them could increase and reduce our margins.
 
We operate in a highly regulated environment and are routinely audited and reviewed by the U.S. Government and its agencies such as the Defense Contract Audit Agency (DCAA) and Defense Contract Management Agency (DCMA). These agencies review our performance under our contracts, our cost structure and our compliance with applicable laws, regulations and standards, as well as the adequacy of, and our compliance with, our internal control systems and policies. Systems that are subject to review include, but are not limited to, our accounting systems, purchasing systems, billing systems, property management and control systems, cost estimating systems, compensation systems and management information systems. Any costs found to be unallowable or improperly allocated to a specific contract will not be reimbursed or must be refunded if already reimbursed. If an audit uncovers improper or illegal activities, we may be subject to civil and criminal penalties and administrative sanctions, which may include termination of contracts, forfeiture of profits, suspension of payments, fines and suspension, or prohibition from doing business with the U.S. Government. Whether or not illegal activities are alleged, the U.S. Government also has the ability to decrease or withhold certain payments when it deems systems subject to its review to be inadequate. In addition, we could suffer serious reputational harm if allegations of impropriety were made against us.
 
The U.S. Government, from time to time, recommends to its contractors that certain contract prices be reduced, or that costs allocated to certain contracts be disallowed. These recommendations can involve substantial amounts. In the past, as a result of such audits and other investigations and inquiries, we have on occasion made adjustments to our contract prices and the costs allocated to our government contracts.
 
We are also, from time to time, subject to U.S. Government investigations relating to our operations, and we are subject to or expected to perform in compliance with a vast array of federal laws, including but not limited to the Truth in Negotiations Act, the False Claims Act, the Procurement Integrity Act, Cost Accounting Standards, the International Traffic in Arms Regulations promulgated under the Arms Export Control Act, the Close the Contractor Fraud Loophole Act and the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. If we are convicted or otherwise found to have violated the law, or are found not to have acted responsibly as defined by the law, we may be subject to reductions of the value of contracts, contract modifications or termination and the assessment of penalties and fines, compensatory or treble damages, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations, or cash flows. Such findings or convictions could also result in suspension or debarment from government contracting. Given our dependence on


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government contracting, suspension or debarment could have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations, or cash flows.
 
n    The Department of Defense has announced plans for significant changes to its business practices that could have a material effect on its overall procurement process and adversely impact our current programs and potential new awards.
 
In September 2010, the DoD announced various initiatives designed to gain efficiencies, refocus priorities and enhance business practices used by the DoD, including those used to procure goods and services from defense contractors. These initiatives are organized into five major areas: affordability and cost growth; productivity and innovation; competition; services acquisition; and processes and bureaucracy. These new initiatives are expected to have a significant impact on the contracting environment in which we do business with our DoD customers and they could have a significant impact on current programs as well as new DoD business opportunities. In his January 6, 2011, announcement regarding future plans, the Secretary of Defense employed some of these initiatives to reduce costs and free up resources for reinvestment. For example, he discussed using multi-year procurement of Navy aircraft, information technology infrastructure streamlining, reductions in outsourcing, consolidation of operating centers and staffs, improving depot and supply chain processes, downsizing intelligence organizations, and eliminating some elements of the DoD’s bureaucracy. Changes to the DoD acquisition system and contracting models could affect whether and, if so, how we pursue certain opportunities and the terms under which we are able to do so. These initiatives are still fairly new and the full impact to our business remains uncertain and subject to the manner in which the DoD implements them.
 
n    Competition within our markets and an increase in bid protests may reduce our revenues and market share.
 
We operate in highly competitive markets and our competitors may have more extensive or more specialized engineering, manufacturing and marketing capabilities than we do in some areas. We anticipate higher competition in some of our core markets as a result of the reduction in budgets for many U.S. Government agencies and fewer new program starts. In addition, as discussed in more detail above, projected U.S. defense spending levels for periods beyond the near-term are uncertain and difficult to predict. Changes in U.S. defense spending may limit certain future market opportunities. We are also facing increasing competition in our domestic and international markets from foreign and multinational firms. Additionally, some customers, including the DoD, may turn to commercial contractors, rather than traditional defense contractors, for information technology and other support work. If we are unable to continue to compete successfully against our current or future competitors, we may experience declines in revenues and market share which could negatively impact our financial position, results of operations, or cash flows.
 
The competitive environment is also affected by bid protests from unsuccessful bidders on new program awards. Bid protests could result in the award decision being overturned, requiring a re-bid of the contract. Even where a bid protest does not result in a re-bid, the resolution typically extends the time until the contract activity can begin, which may reduce our earnings in the period in which the contract would otherwise have commenced.
 
n    Our future success depends, in part, on our ability to develop new products and new technologies and maintain technologies, facilities, equipment and a qualified workforce to meet the needs of current and future customers.
 
The markets in which we operate are characterized by rapidly changing technologies. The product, program and service needs of our customers change and evolve regularly. Accordingly, our success in the competitive defense industry depends upon our ability to develop and market our products and services, as well as our ability to provide the people, technologies, facilities, equipment and financial capacity needed to deliver those products and services with maximum efficiency. If we fail to maintain our competitive position, we could lose a significant amount of future business to our competitors, which would have a material adverse effect on our ability to generate favorable financial results and maintain market share.
 
Operating results are heavily dependent upon our ability to attract and retain sufficient personnel with requisite skills and/or security clearances. If qualified personnel become scarce, we could experience higher


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labor, recruiting or training costs in order to attract and retain such employees or could experience difficulty in performing under our contracts if the needs for such employees are unmet.
 
Approximately 20 percent of our 117,100 employees are covered by an aggregate of 32 collective bargaining agreements. We expect to re-negotiate renewals of four of our collective bargaining agreements in 2011. Collective bargaining agreements generally expire after three to five years and are subject to renegotiation at that time. We may experience difficulties with renewals and renegotiations of existing collective bargaining agreements. If we experience such difficulties, we could incur additional expenses and work stoppages. Any such expenses or delays could adversely affect programs served by employees who are covered by collective bargaining agreements.
 
n    Many of our contracts contain performance obligations that require innovative design capabilities, are technologically complex, require state-of-the-art manufacturing expertise or are dependent upon factors not wholly within our control. Failure to meet these obligations could adversely affect our profitability and future prospects.
 
We design, develop and manufacture technologically advanced and innovative products and services applied by our customers in a variety of environments. Problems and delays in development or delivery as a result of issues with respect to design, technology, licensing and patent rights, labor, learning curve assumptions or materials and components could prevent us from achieving contractual requirements.
 
In addition, our products cannot be tested and proven in all situations and are otherwise subject to unforeseen problems. Examples of unforeseen problems that could negatively affect revenue and profitability include loss on launch of spacecraft, premature failure of products that cannot be accessed for repair or replacement, problems with quality and workmanship, country of origin, delivery of subcontractor components or services and unplanned degradation of product performance. These failures could result, either directly or indirectly, in loss of life or property. Among the factors that may affect revenue and profits could be unforeseen costs and expenses not covered by insurance or indemnification from the customer, diversion of management focus in responding to unforeseen problems, loss of follow-on work, and, in the case of certain contracts, repayment to the government customer of contract cost and fee payments we previously received.
 
Certain contracts, primarily involving space satellite systems, contain provisions that entitle the customer to recover fees in the event of partial or complete failure of the system upon launch or subsequent deployment for less than a specified period of time. Under such terms, we could be required to forfeit fees previously recognized and/or collected. We have not experienced any material losses in the last decade in connection with such contract performance incentive provisions. However, if we were to experience launch failures or complete satellite system failures in the future, such events could have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations, or cash flows.
 
n    Contract cost growth on fixed-price and other contracts that cannot be justified as an increase in contract value due from customers exposes us to reduced profitability and the potential loss of future business.
 
Our operating income is adversely affected when we incur certain contract costs or certain increases in contract costs that cannot be billed to customers. This cost growth can occur if estimates to complete increase due to technical challenges, manufacturing difficulties or delays, or workforce-related issues, or if initial estimates used for calculating the contract cost were incorrect. The cost estimation process requires significant judgment and expertise. Reasons for cost growth may include unavailability or reduced productivity of labor, the nature and complexity of the work to be performed, the timelines and availability of materials, major subcontractor performance and quality of their products, the effect of any delays in performance, availability and timing of funding from the customer, natural disasters and the inability to recover any claims included in the estimates to complete. A significant change in cost estimates on one or


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more programs could have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
 
Most of our contracts are firm fixed-price contracts or flexibly priced contracts. Our risk varies with the type of contract. Flexibly priced contracts include both cost-type and fixed-price incentive contracts. Due to their nature, firm fixed-price contracts inherently have more risk than flexibly priced contracts. Approximately 33 percent of our annual revenues are derived from firm fixed-price contracts – see Contracts in Part II, Item 7. We typically enter into firm fixed-price contracts where costs can be reasonably estimated based on experience. In addition, our contracts contain provisions relating to cost controls and audit rights. Should the terms specified in our contracts not be met, then profitability may be reduced. Fixed-price development work comprises a small portion of our firm fixed-price contracts and inherently has more uncertainty as to future events than production contracts and therefore more variability in estimates of the costs to complete the development stage. As work progresses through the development stage into production, the risks associated with estimating the total costs of the contract are generally reduced. In addition, successful performance of firm fixed-price development contracts that include production units is subject to our ability to control cost growth in meeting production specifications and delivery rates. While management uses its best judgment to estimate costs associated with fixed-price development contracts, future events could result in either upward or downward adjustments to those estimates.
 
Under a fixed-price incentive contract, the allowable costs incurred by the contractor are subject to reimbursement, but are subject to a cost-share limit which affects profitability. Contracts in Shipbuilding are often fixed-price incentive contracts for production of a first item without a separate development contract. Accordingly, we face the additional difficulty of estimating production costs on a product that has not yet been designed. Further, Shipbuilding sometimes enters into follow-on fixed-price contracts after a significant delay from the first production request, and the passage of time makes it more difficult for us to accurately estimate costs for renewed production.
 
Under a cost-type contract the allowable costs incurred by the contractor are also subject to reimbursement plus a fee that represents profit. We enter into cost-type contracts for development programs with complex design and technical challenges. These cost-type programs typically have award or incentive fees that are subject to uncertainty and may be earned over extended periods. In these cases the associated financial risks are primarily in lower profit rates or program cancellation if cost, schedule, or technical performance issues arise.
 
n    Our earnings and margins depend, in part, on our ability to perform under contracts.
 
When agreeing to contractual terms, our management makes assumptions and projections about future conditions and events, many of which extend over long periods. These projections assess the productivity and availability of labor, the complexity of the work to be performed, the cost and availability of materials, the impact of delayed performance, and the timing of product deliveries. If there is a significant change in one or more of these circumstances or estimates, or if we face unanticipated contract costs, the profitability of one or more of these contracts may be adversely affected.
 
n    Our earnings and margins depend, in part, on subcontractor performance as well as raw material and component availability and pricing.
 
We rely on other companies to provide raw materials and major components for our products and rely on subcontractors to produce hardware elements and sub-assemblies and perform some of the services that we provide to our customers. Disruptions or performance problems caused by our subcontractors and vendors could have an adverse effect on our ability to meet our commitments to customers. Our ability to perform our obligations as a prime contractor could be adversely affected if one or more of the vendors or subcontractors are unable to provide the agreed-upon products or materials or perform the agreed-upon services in a timely and cost-effective manner.


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Our costs may increase over the term of our contracts. Through cost escalation provisions contained in some of our U.S. Government contracts, we may be protected from increases in material costs to the extent that the increases in our costs are in line with industry indices. However, the difference in basis between our actual material costs and these indices may expose us to cost uncertainty even with these provisions. A significant delay in supply deliveries of our key raw materials required in our production processes could have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations, or cash flows.
 
In connection with our government contracts, we are required to procure certain materials, components and parts from supply sources approved by the U.S. Government. There are currently several components for which there may be only one supplier. The inability of a sole source supplier to meet our needs could have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations, or cash flows.
 
n    Our business is subject to disruption caused by natural disasters, environmental disasters and other factors that could adversely affect our profitability and our overall financial position.
 
We have significant operations located in regions of the U.S. that may be exposed to damaging storms and other natural disasters, such as hurricanes or earthquakes, and environmental disasters, such as oil spills. Although preventative measures may help to mitigate damage, the damage and disruption resulting from natural and environmental disasters may be significant. Should insurance or other risk transfer mechanisms be unavailable or insufficient to recover all costs, we could experience a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations, or cash flows.
 
Our suppliers and subcontractors are also subject to natural disasters that could affect their ability to deliver or perform under a contract. Performance failures by our subcontractors due to natural and environmental disasters may adversely affect our ability to perform our obligations on the prime contract, which could reduce our profitability due to damages or other costs that may not be fully recoverable from the subcontractor or from the customer and could result in a termination of the prime contract and have an adverse effect on our ability to compete for future contracts.
 
Natural disasters can also disrupt our workforce, electrical and other power distribution networks, including computer and internet operation and accessibility, and the critical industrial infrastructure needed for normal business operations. These disruptions could cause adverse effects on our profitability and performance. Environmental disasters, particularly oil spills in waterways and bodies of water used for the transport and testing of our ships, can disrupt the timing of our performance under our contracts with the U.S. Navy and the U.S. Coast Guard.
 
n    We use estimates when accounting for contracts. Changes in estimates could affect our profitability and our overall financial position.
 
Contract accounting requires judgment relative to assessing risks, estimating contract revenues and costs, and making assumptions for schedule and technical issues. Due to the size and nature of many of our contracts, the estimation of total revenues and costs at completion is complicated and subject to many variables. For example, assumptions have to be made regarding the length of time to complete the contract because costs also include expected increases in wages and prices for materials. Similarly, assumptions have to be made regarding the future impact of our self-imposed efficiency initiatives and cost reduction efforts. Incentives, awards or penalties related to performance on contracts are considered in estimating revenue and profit rates, and are recorded when there is sufficient information to assess anticipated performance.
 
Because of the significance of the judgment and estimation processes described above, it is possible that materially different amounts could be obtained if different assumptions were used or if the underlying circumstances were to change. Changes in underlying assumptions, circumstances or estimates may have a material adverse effect upon future period financial reporting and performance. See Critical Accounting Policies, Estimates, and Judgments in Part II, Item 7.


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n    Our international business exposes us to additional risks.
 
Although our international business constitutes only 5 percent of total revenues, we are subject to numerous U.S. and foreign laws and regulations, including, without limitation, regulations relating to import-export control, technology transfer restrictions, repatriation of earnings, exchange controls, the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and the anti-boycott provisions of the U.S. Export Administration Act. Failure by us or our sales representatives or consultants to comply with these laws and regulations could result in administrative, civil, or criminal liabilities and could, in the extreme case, result in suspension or debarment from government contracts or suspension of our export privileges, which could have a material adverse effect on us. Changes in regulation or political environment may affect our ability to conduct business in foreign markets, including investment, procurement and repatriation of earnings.
 
The services and products we provide internationally, including through the use of subcontractors, are sometimes in countries with unstable governments, in areas of military conflict or at military installations. This increases the risk of an incident resulting in damage or destruction to our products or resulting in injury or loss of life to our employees, subcontractors or other third parties. We maintain insurance to mitigate risk and potential liabilities related to our international operations, but our insurance coverage may not be adequate to cover these claims and liabilities and we may be forced to bear substantial costs arising from those claims. (See additional discussion of possible inadequacy of our insurance coverage below). In addition, any accidents or incidents that occur in connection with our international operations could result in negative publicity for the company, which may adversely affect our reputation and make it more difficult for us to compete for future contracts or result in the loss of existing and future contracts. The impact of these factors is difficult to predict, but any one or more of them could adversely affect our financial position, results of operations, or cash flows.
 
n    Our reputation and our ability to do business may be impacted by the improper conduct of employees, agents or business partners.
 
We have implemented extensive compliance controls, policies and procedures to prevent and detect reckless or criminal acts committed by employees, agents or business partners that would violate the laws of the jurisdictions in which we operate, including laws governing payments to government officials, security clearance breaches, cost accounting and billing, competition and data privacy. However, we cannot ensure that we will prevent all such reckless or criminal acts committed by our employees, agents or business partners. Any improper actions could subject us to civil or criminal investigations and monetary and non-monetary penalties and could have a material adverse effect on our ability to conduct business, our results of operations and our reputation.
 
n    Our business could be negatively impacted by security threats and other disruptions.
 
As a defense contractor, we face certain security threats, including threats to our information technology infrastructure and unlawful attempts to gain access to our proprietary or classified information. Our information technology networks and related systems are critical to the smooth operation of our business and essential to our ability to perform day-to-day operations. Loss of security within this critical operational infrastructure could disrupt our operations, require significant management attention and resources and could have a material adverse effect on our performance.
 
We also manage information technology systems for various customers. While we maintain information security policies and procedures for managing these systems, we generally face the same security threats for these systems as for our own systems. Computer viruses, attempts to gain access to our customers’ data or other electronic security breaches could lead to disruptions in mission critical systems for our customers, unauthorized release of confidential or personally identifiable information and corruption of customer data.


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These events could damage our reputation and lead to financial losses from remedial actions we must take, potential liability to customers and litigation expenses.
 
n    Our nuclear operations subject us to various environmental, regulatory, financial and other risks.
 
The development and operation of nuclear-powered aircraft carriers, nuclear-powered submarines, nuclear facilities and other nuclear operations subject us to various risks, including:
 
  n    potential liabilities relating to harmful effects on the environment and human health resulting from nuclear operations and the storage, handling and disposal of radioactive materials;
 
  n    unplanned expenditures relating to maintenance, operation, security and repair, including repairs required by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission;
 
  n    reputational harm; and
 
  n    potential liabilities arising out of a nuclear incident whether or not it is within our control.
 
The U.S. Government provides indemnity protection against specified risks under our contracts pursuant to Public Law 85-804 and the Price-Anderson Nuclear Industries Indemnity Act for certain of our nuclear operations risks. Our nuclear operations are subject to various safety-related requirements imposed by the U.S. Navy, DoE, and Nuclear Regulatory Commission. In the event of noncompliance, these agencies may increase regulatory oversight, impose fines or shut down our operations, depending upon the assessment of the severity of the situation. Revised security and safety requirements promulgated by these agencies could necessitate substantial capital and other expenditures. Additionally, while we maintain insurance for certain risks related to transportation of low level nuclear materials and waste, such as contaminated clothing, and for regulatory changes in the health, safety and fire protection areas, there can be no assurances that such insurance will be sufficient to cover our costs in the event of an accident or business interruption relating to our nuclear operations, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations, or cash flows.
 
n    Unforeseen environmental costs could have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations, or cash flows.
 
Our operations are subject to and affected by a variety of federal, state, local and foreign environmental protection laws and regulations. In addition, we could be affected by future laws or regulations, including those imposed in response to climate change concerns and other actions commonly referred to as “green initiatives.” Compliance with current and future environmental laws and regulations currently requires and is expected to continue to require significant operating and capital costs.
 
Environmental laws and regulations can impose substantial fines and criminal sanctions for violations, and may require the installation of costly pollution control equipment or operational changes to limit pollution emissions or discharges and/or decrease the likelihood of accidental hazardous substance releases. We also incur, and expect to continue to incur, costs to comply with current federal and state environmental laws and regulations related to the cleanup of pollutants previously released into the environment. In addition, if we were found to be in violation of the Federal Clean Air Act or the Clean Water Act, the facility or facilities involved in the violation could be placed by the EPA on the “Excluded Parties List” maintained by the General Services Administration. The listing would continue until the EPA concludes that the cause of the violation had been cured. Listed facilities cannot be used in performing any U.S. Government contract while they are listed by the EPA.
 
The adoption of new laws and regulations, stricter enforcement of existing laws and regulations, imposition of new cleanup requirements, discovery of previously unknown or more extensive contamination, litigation involving environmental impacts, our ability to recover such costs under previously priced contracts or


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financial insolvency of other responsible parties could cause us to incur costs in the future that would have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations, or cash flows.
 
n    We are subject to various claims and litigation that could ultimately be resolved against us. Resolution of these matters may require material future cash payments and/or future material charges against our operating income.
 
The size, type and complexity of our business make us highly susceptible to claims and litigation. We are and may become subject to various environmental claims, income tax matters and other litigation, which, if not resolved within established reserves, could have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows. See Legal Proceedings in Part I, Item 3, Critical Accounting Policies, Estimates, and Judgments in Part II, Item 7 and Note 15 to the consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8. Any claims and litigation, even if fully indemnified or insured, could negatively impact our reputation among our customers and the public, and make it more difficult for us to compete effectively or obtain adequate insurance in the future.
 
n    We may be unable to adequately protect our intellectual property rights, which could affect our ability to compete.
 
We own many U.S. and foreign patents, trademarks, copyrights, and other forms of intellectual property. The U.S. Government has rights to use certain intellectual property that we develop in performance of government contracts, and it may use or authorize others to use such intellectual property. Our intellectual property is subject to challenge, invalidation, misappropriation or circumvention by third parties.
 
We also rely significantly upon proprietary technology, information, processes and know-how that are not protected by patents. We seek to protect this information through trade secret or confidentiality agreements with our employees, consultants, subcontractors and other parties, as well as through other security measures. These agreements and security measures may not provide meaningful protection for our unpatented proprietary information. In the event of an infringement of our intellectual property rights, a breach of a confidentiality agreement or divulgence of proprietary information, we may not have adequate legal remedies to maintain our intellectual property. Litigation to determine the scope of intellectual property rights, even if ultimately successful, could be costly and could divert management’s attention away from other aspects of our business. In addition, our trade secrets may otherwise become known or be independently developed by competitors.
 
In some instances, we have licensed the proprietary intellectual property of others, but we may be unable in the future to secure the necessary licenses to use such intellectual property on commercially reasonable terms.
 
n    Our insurance coverage may be inadequate to cover all of our significant risks or our insurers may deny coverage of material losses we incur, which could adversely affect our profitability and overall financial position.
 
We endeavor to identify and obtain in established markets insurance agreements to cover significant risks and liabilities (including, for example, natural disasters and product liability). Not every risk or liability can be protected by insurance, and, for insurable risks, the limits of coverage reasonably obtainable in the market may not be sufficient to cover all actual losses or liabilities incurred, including for example, a catastrophic earthquake claim. In some, but not all, circumstances, we may receive indemnification from the U.S. Government. Because of the limitations in overall available coverage referred to above, we may have to bear substantial costs for uninsured losses that could have an adverse effect upon our financial position, results of operations, or cash flows. Additionally, disputes with insurance carriers over coverage may affect the timing of cash flows and, if litigation with the carrier becomes necessary, an outcome unfavorable to us may have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations, or cash flows. We commenced legal action against an insurance carrier arising out of a disagreement concerning the coverage of certain losses related to Hurricane Katrina, and another carrier has denied coverage for certain other losses related to


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Hurricane Katrina and advised us that it will seek reimbursement of certain amounts previously advanced by that carrier. See Note 15 to the consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8.
 
n    Changes in future business conditions could cause business investments and/or recorded goodwill to become impaired, resulting in substantial losses and write-downs that would reduce our operating income.
 
As part of our overall strategy, we may, from time to time, acquire a minority or majority interest in a business. These investments are made upon careful analysis and due diligence procedures designed to achieve a desired return or strategic objective. These procedures often involve certain assumptions and judgment in determining acquisition price. Even after careful integration efforts, actual operating results may vary significantly from initial estimates. Goodwill accounts for approximately half of our recorded total assets. We evaluate goodwill amounts for impairment annually, or when evidence of potential impairment exists. The annual impairment test is based on several factors requiring judgment. Principally, a significant decrease in expected cash flows or changes in market conditions may indicate potential impairment of recorded goodwill. Adverse equity market conditions that result in a decline in market multiples and our stock price could result in an impairment of goodwill and/or other intangible assets. We continue to monitor the recoverability of the carrying value of our goodwill and other long-lived assets. See Critical Accounting Policies, Estimates, and Judgments in Part II, Item 7.
 
n    Anticipated benefits of mergers, acquisitions, joint ventures or strategic alliances may not be realized.
 
As part of our overall strategy, we may, from time to time, merge with or acquire businesses, or form joint ventures or create strategic alliances. Whether we realize the anticipated benefits from these transactions depends, in part, upon the integration between the businesses involved, the performance of the underlying products, capabilities or technologies and the management of the transacted operations. Accordingly, our financial results could be adversely affected from unanticipated performance issues, transaction-related charges, amortization of expenses related to intangibles, charges for impairment of long-term assets and partner performance. Although we believe that we have established appropriate and adequate procedures and processes to mitigate these risks, there is no assurance that these transactions will be successful.
 
n    We are exploring strategic alternatives for our Shipbuilding segment. We cannot assure you that a transaction will result, or that, if completed, we would realize the anticipated benefits thereof.
 
In July 2010, we announced that we are evaluating strategic alternatives for the Shipbuilding segment, including, but not limited to, a spin-off to our shareholders. In preparation for an anticipated spin-off of the Shipbuilding business to our shareholders, a registration statement on Form 10 for the shares of our wholly owned subsidiary, Huntington Ingalls Industries, Inc., the entity that would hold the shipbuilding business, was initially filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission in October 2010, with amendments filed in November 2010, December 2010, and January 2011. We cannot assure you that the exploration of these strategic alternatives will result in any transaction. Our ability to complete a transaction involving the Shipbuilding segment in a timely manner, or even at all, could be subject to several factors, including: changes in the company’s operating performance; our ability to obtain any necessary consents or approvals; changes in governmental regulations and policies; and changes in business, political and economic conditions in the United States. As a condition of an anticipated spin-off, we have obtained a private letter ruling from the Internal Revenue Service and expect to receive an opinion of counsel that the spin-off will be tax-free to the company and our shareholders but can give no assurance that any anticipated spin-off will ultimately qualify as a tax-free transaction. If a transaction involving the Shipbuilding segment is delayed for any reason, we may not realize the anticipated benefits, and if a transaction does not occur, we will not realize such benefits. Each of these risks could adversely affect our financial position, results of operations, or cash flows.


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n    Market volatility and adverse capital and credit market conditions may affect our ability to access cost-effective sources of funding and expose us to risks associated with the financial viability of suppliers and the ability of counterparties to perform on financial instruments.
 
The financial and credit markets recently experienced high levels of volatility and disruption, reducing the availability of credit for certain issuers. Historically, we have occasionally accessed these markets to support certain business activities, including acquisitions, capital expansion projects, refinancing existing debt and issuing letters of credit. In the future, we may not be able to obtain capital market financing or bank financing when needed on favorable terms, or at all, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations, or cash flows.
 
A tightening of credit could also adversely affect our suppliers’ ability to obtain financing. Delays in suppliers’ ability to obtain financing, or the unavailability of financing, could cause us to be unable to meet our contract obligations and could adversely affect our financial position, results of operations, or cash flows. The inability of our suppliers to obtain financing could also result in the need for us to transition to alternate suppliers, which could result in significant incremental cost and delay.
 
We have executed transactions with counterparties in the financial services industry, including brokers and dealers, commercial banks, investment banks and other institutional parties. These transactions expose us to potential credit risk in the event of counterparty default.
 
n    Pension and medical expenses associated with our retirement benefit plans may fluctuate significantly depending upon changes in actuarial assumptions, future market performance of plan assets, future trends in health care costs and legislative or other regulatory actions.
 
A substantial portion of our current and retired employee population is covered by pension and post-retirement benefit plans, the costs of which are dependent upon our various assumptions, including estimates of rates of return on benefit related assets, discount rates for future payment obligations, rates of future cost growth and trends for future costs. In addition, funding requirements for benefit obligations of our pension and post-retirement benefit plans are subject to legislative and other government regulatory actions.
 
Variances from these estimates could have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations, or cash flows. For example, the recent volatility in the financial markets resulted in lower than expected returns on our pension plan assets in 2008, which resulted in higher pension costs in subsequent years. See Note 17 to the consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8.
 
Additionally, due to government regulations, pension plan cost recoveries under our government contracts may occur in different periods from when those pension costs are accrued for financial statement purposes or when pension funding is made. Timing differences between pension costs accrued for financial statement purposes or when pension funding occurs compared to when such costs are recoverable as allowable costs under our government contracts could have a material adverse effect on our cash flow from operations. In May 2010, the U.S. Cost Accounting Standards Board published a proposed rulemaking that, if adopted, could provide a framework to partially harmonize these funding timing differences. See Overview – Industry Factors, Recent Developments in U.S. Cost Accounting Standards (CAS) Pension Recovery Rules in Part II, Item 7 for further discussion.
 
n    Unanticipated changes in our tax provisions or exposure to additional income tax liabilities could affect our profitability and cash flow.
 
We are subject to income taxes in the U.S. and many foreign jurisdictions. Significant judgment is required in determining our worldwide provision for income taxes. In the ordinary course of business, there are many transactions and calculations where the ultimate tax determination is uncertain. In addition, timing differences in the recognition of income from contracts for financial statement purposes and for income tax regulations can cause uncertainty with respect to the timing of income tax payments which can have a


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significant impact on cash flow in a particular period. Furthermore, changes in applicable domestic or foreign income tax laws and regulations, or their interpretation, could result in higher or lower income tax rates assessed or changes in the taxability of certain sales or the deductibility of certain expenses, thereby affecting our income tax expense and profitability. The final determination of any tax audits or related litigation could be materially different from our historical income tax provisions and accruals. Additionally, changes in our tax rate as a result of a change in the mix of earnings in countries with differing statutory tax rates, changes in our overall profitability, changes in tax legislation, changes in the valuation of deferred tax assets and liabilities, changes in differences between financial reporting income and taxable income, the results of audits and the examination of previously filed tax returns by taxing authorities and continuing assessments of our tax exposures could impact our tax liabilities and affect our income tax expense, profitability and cash flow.
 
Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
 
We have no unresolved comments from the SEC.


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FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS AND PROJECTIONS
 
Statements in this Form 10-K and the information we are incorporating by reference, other than statements of historical fact, constitute “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Words such as “expect,” “intend,” “plan,” “project,” “forecast,” “believe,” “estimate,” “outlook,” “anticipate,” “trends” and similar expressions generally identify these forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements are based upon assumptions, expectations, plans and projections that are believed valid when made. These statements are not guarantees of future performance and inherently involve a wide range of risks and uncertainties that are difficult to predict. Specific factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied in the forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, those identified under Risk Factors in Part I, Item 1A and other important factors disclosed in this report and from time to time in our other filings with the SEC.
 
You are urged to consider the limitations on, and risks associated with, forward-looking statements and not unduly rely on the accuracy of predictions contained in such forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this report or, in the case of any document incorporated by reference, the date of that document. We undertake no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by applicable law.
 
Item 2. Properties
 
At December 31, 2010, we owned or leased approximately 54 million square feet of floor space at approximately 767 separate locations, primarily in the U.S., for manufacturing, warehousing, research and testing, administration and various other uses. At December 31, 2010, we leased to third parties approximately 622,000 square feet of our owned and leased facilities, and had vacant floor space of approximately 417,000 square feet.
 
At December 31, 2010, we had major operations at the following locations:
 
Aerospace Systems – Carson, El Segundo, Manhattan Beach, Mojave, Palmdale, Redondo Beach, and San Diego, CA; Melbourne and St. Augustine, FL; Bethpage, NY; and Clearfield, UT.
 
Electronic Systems – Azusa, Sunnyvale and Woodland Hills, CA; Norwalk, CT; Apopka, FL; Rolling Meadows, IL; Annapolis, Elkridge, Halethorpe, Linthicum and Sykesville, MD; Williamsville, NY; Cincinnati, OH; Salt Lake City, UT; and Charlottesville, VA. Locations outside the U.S. include France, Germany, Italy and the United Kingdom.
 
Information Systems – Huntsville, AL; Carson, McClellan, Redondo Beach, San Diego, and San Jose, CA; Aurora and Colorado Springs CO; Washington D.C.; Annapolis Junction and Columbia, MD; Bellevue, NE; and Chantilly, Chester, Dahlgren, Fairfax, Herndon, McLean, and Reston, VA.
 
Shipbuilding – San Diego, CA; Avondale, LA; Gulfport and Pascagoula, MS; and Hampton, Newport News, and Suffolk, VA.
 
Technical Services – Sierra Vista, AZ; Warner Robins, GA; Lake Charles, LA; and Herndon, VA.
 
Corporate and other locations – Los Angeles, CA; Morris Plains, NJ; York, PA; Irving, TX; and Arlington, Falls Church and Lebanon, VA. Locations outside the U.S. include Canada.


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The following is a summary of our floor space at December 31, 2010:
 
                                 
            U.S. Government
   
Square feet (in thousands)   Owned   Leased   Owned/Leased   Total
Aerospace Systems
    6,354       5,657       1,914       13,925  
Electronic Systems
    8,175       3,397               11,572  
Information Systems
    652       7,936               8,588  
Shipbuilding
    13,010       2,912       203       16,125  
Technical Services
    128       2,114       4       2,246  
Corporate
    967       920               1,887  
                                 
Total
    29,286       22,936       2,121       54,343  
                                 
 
We maintain our properties in good operating condition. We believe that the productive capacity of our properties is adequate to meet current contractual requirements and those for the foreseeable future.
 
In January 2010, we announced our decision to move our principal executive offices from Los Angeles, California to the Washington D.C. area. In the fourth quarter of 2010, we purchased an existing 334,407 square foot building located at 2980 Fairview Park Drive, Falls Church, Virginia, as the new location for our principal executive offices and expect to initiate operations there in the summer of 2011. We believe this move will enable us to better serve our customers. Although we are moving some corporate staff from Los Angeles, the state of California remains a significant business location for us.
 
Item 3. Legal Proceedings
 
We have provided information about certain legal proceedings in which we are involved in Note 15 to the consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8.
 
In addition to the matters disclosed in Note 15, we are a party to various investigations, lawsuits, claims and other legal proceedings that arise in the ordinary course of our business, and based on information available to us, we do not believe at this time that any such additional proceedings will individually, or in the aggregate, have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations, or cash flows. For further information on the risks we face from existing and future investigations, lawsuits, claims and other legal proceedings, please see Risk Factors in Part I, Item 1A, of this report.


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PART II
 
Item 5.   Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
 
(a)  Market Information.
 
Our common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange.
 
The following table sets forth, for the periods indicated, the high and low closing sale prices of our common stock as reported in the consolidated reporting system for the New York Stock Exchange Composite Transactions:
 
                                                 
    2010   2009
January to March
  $ 65.78       to     $ 55.63     $ 49.72       to     $ 34.35  
April to June
  $ 69.38       to     $ 54.44     $ 50.54       to     $ 43.98  
July to September
  $ 60.63       to     $ 54.10     $ 52.75       to     $ 43.23  
October to December
  $ 65.34       to     $ 60.11     $ 56.84       to     $ 49.59  
 
 
(b)  Holders.
 
The approximate number of common stockholders was 32,388 as of February 7, 2011.
 
(c)  Dividends.
 
Quarterly dividends per common share for the most recent two years are as follows:
 
                 
    2010   2009
January to March
  $ 0.43     $ 0.40  
April to June
    0.47       0.43  
July to September
    0.47       0.43  
October to December
    0.47       0.43  
                 
    $ 1.84     $ 1.69  
                 
 
Common Stock
We have 800,000,000 shares authorized at a $1 par value per share, of which 290,956,752 shares and 306,865,201 shares were outstanding as of December 31, 2010, and 2009, respectively.
 
Preferred Stock
We have 10,000,000 shares authorized at a $1 par value per share, of which no shares were issued and outstanding as of December 31, 2010, and 2009.
 
On February 20, 2008, our board of directors approved the redemption of the 3.5 million shares of Series B Convertible Preferred Stock on April 4, 2008. Substantially all of the preferred shares were converted into common stock at the election of stockholders prior to the redemption date. All remaining non converted shares were redeemed on the redemption date. We issued approximately 6.4 million shares of common stock as a result of the conversion and redemption.
 
(d)  Annual Meeting of Stockholders.
 
Our Annual Meeting of Stockholders will be held on May 18, 2011, in Chantilly, Virginia.


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(e)  Stock Performance Graph.
 
COMPARISON OF CUMULATIVE FIVE YEAR TOTAL RETURN
AMONG NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION, THE S&P 500 INDEX,
AND THE S&P AEROSPACE & DEFENSE INDEX
 
(PERFORMANCE GRAPH)
 
 
(1) Assumes $100 invested at the close of business on December 31, 2005, in Northrop Grumman Corporation common stock, Standard & Poor’s (S&P) 500 Index, and the S&P Aerospace Defense Index.
 
(2) The cumulative total return assumes reinvestment of dividends.
 
(3) The S&P Aerospace Defense Index is comprised of The Boeing Company, General Dynamics Corporation, Goodrich Corporation, Honeywell International Inc., ITT Corporation, L-3 Communications, Lockheed Martin Corporation, Northrop Grumman Corporation, Precision Castparts Corporation, Raytheon Company, Rockwell Collins, Inc., and United Technologies Corporation.
 
(4) The total return is weighted according to market capitalization of each company at the beginning of each year.


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(f)  Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers.
 
We have summarized our repurchases of common stock during the three months ended December 31, 2010, in the table below.
 
                                 
                Approximate
                Dollar Value
            Total Numbers
  of Shares
            of Shares
  that May
            Purchased
  Yet Be
            as Part
  Purchased
            of Publicly
  Under the
    Total Number
  Average Price
  Announced
  Plans or
    of Shares
  Paid per
  Plans or
  Programs
Period   Purchased(1)   Share(2)   Programs   ($ in millions)
October 1 through October 31, 2010
    518,760     $ 61.74       518,760     $ 1,848  
November 1 through November 30, 2010
    664,980       62.18       664,980       1,806  
December 1 through December 31, 2010
    693,106       64.31       693,106       1,762  
                                 
Total
    1,876,846     $ 62.85       1,876,846     $ 1,762 (1)
                                 
 
(1) On June 16, 2010, our board of directors authorized a share repurchase program of up to $2.0 billion of our common stock. As of December 31, 2010, we had $1.8 billion remaining under this authorization for share repurchases.
 
Share repurchases take place at management’s discretion or under pre-established, non-discretionary programs from time to time, depending on market conditions, in the open market, and in privately negotiated transactions. We retire our common stock upon repurchase and have not made any purchases of common stock other than in connection with these publicly announced repurchase programs.
 
(2) Includes commissions paid.
 
(g)  Securities Authorized for Issuance Under Equity Compensation Plans.
 
For a description of securities authorized under our equity compensation plans, see Note 18 to the consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8.


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Item 6.   Selected Financial Data
 
The data presented in the following table is derived from the audited consolidated financial statements and other information adjusted to reflect the effects of discontinued operations. See also Business Acquisitions and Business Dispositions in Part II, Item 7.
 
Selected Financial Data
 
                                         
    Year Ended December 31
$ in millions, except per share   2010   2009   2008   2007   2006
Sales and Service Revenues
                                       
U.S. Government
  $ 32,094     $ 31,037     $ 29,320     $ 27,361     $ 25,906  
Other customers
    2,663       2,718       2,995       2,980       2,749  
                                         
Total revenues
  $ 34,757     $ 33,755     $ 32,315     $ 30,341     $ 28,655  
                                         
Goodwill impairment
                  $ (3,060 )                
Operating income (loss)
  $ 3,070     $ 2,483       (263 )   $ 2,925     $ 2,405  
Earnings (loss) from continuing operations
    2,038       1,573       (1,379 )     1,751       1,535  
                                         
Basic earnings (loss) per share, from continuing operations
  $ 6.86     $ 4.93     $ (4.12 )   $ 5.12     $ 4.44  
Diluted earnings (loss) per share, from continuing operations
    6.77       4.87       (4.12 )     5.01       4.28  
Cash dividends declared per common share
    1.84       1.69       1.57       1.48       1.16  
                                         
Year-End Financial Position
                                       
Total assets
  $ 31,421     $ 30,252     $ 30,197     $ 33,373     $ 32,009  
Notes payable to banks and long-term debt
    4,829       4,294       3,944       4,055       4,162  
Total long-term obligations and preferred stock(1)
    9,478       10,580       10,828       9,235       8,622  
                                         
Financial Metrics
                                       
Net cash provided by operating activities
  $ 2,453     $ 2,133     $ 3,211     $ 2,890     $ 1,756  
Free cash flow(2)
    1,677       1,411       2,420       2,072       947  
Notes payable to banks and long-term debt as a percentage of shareholders’ equity
    35.6 %     33.8 %     33.1 %     22.9 %     25.0 %
                                         
Other Information
                                       
Company-sponsored research and development expenses
  $ 603     $ 610     $ 564     $ 522     $ 559  
Maintenance and repairs
    516       481       439       331       354  
Payroll and employee benefits
    14,032       14,751       13,036       12,301       11,918  
                                         
Number of employees at year-end
    117,100       120,700       123,600       121,700       121,400  
                                         
 
(1) In 2008, all of the shares of preferred stock were converted or redeemed.
 
(2) Free cash flow is a non-GAAP financial measure and is calculated as net cash provided by operations less capital expenditures and outsourcing contract and related software costs. Outsourcing contract and related software costs are similar to capital expenditures in that the contract costs represent incremental external costs or certain specific internal costs that are directly related to the contract acquisition and transition/set-up. These outsourcing contract and related software costs are deferred and expensed over the contract life. See Liquidity and Capital Resources – Free Cash Flow in Part II, Item 7 for more information on this measure.


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Item 7.   Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
 
OVERVIEW
 
Business
We provide technologically advanced, innovative products, services, and integrated solutions in aerospace, electronics, information and services and shipbuilding to our global customers. We participate in many high-priority defense and commercial technology programs in the United States (U.S.) and abroad as a prime contractor, principal subcontractor, partner, or preferred supplier. We conduct most of our business with the U.S. Government, principally the Department of Defense (DoD). We also conduct business with local, state, and foreign governments and domestic and international commercial customers.
 
Notable Events
Certain notable events or activities affecting our 2010 consolidated financial results included the following:
 
Significant financial events for the year ended December 31, 2010
  n    Recorded $113 million pre-tax charge related to the winding down of our shipbuilding operations at the Avondale, Louisiana facility.
 
  n    Recorded $231 million pre-tax charge related to the redemption of outstanding debt
  n    Recognized net tax benefits of $296 million in connection with Internal Revenue Service (IRS) settlement on our tax returns for years 2004 through 2006.
 
  n    Contributed voluntary pension funding amounts totaling $830 million.
  n    Issued $1.5 billion of unsecured senior debt obligations.
  n    Paid $1.1 billion to repurchase outstanding debt securities (including $231 million in premiums paid).
  n    Repurchased 19.7 million common shares for $1.2 billion.
  n    Increased quarterly stock dividend from $0.43 per share to $0.47 per share.
 
Other notable events for the year ended December 31, 2010
  n    Announced in July the decision to explore strategic alternatives for the Shipbuilding business. In preparation for an anticipated spin-off of the Shipbuilding business to the company’s shareholders, a registration statement on Form 10 for the shares of Huntington Ingalls Industries, Inc. (HII or the Shipbuilding business) was initially filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) in October 2010, with amendments filed in November 2010, December 2010 and January 2011.
 
  n    Reached agreement with the Commonwealth of Virginia related to the Virginia IT outsourcing contract (VITA).
 
  n    Authorized new share repurchases of up to $2.0 billion.
 
Outlook
Beginning with the credit crisis of 2008 through the present, the United States and global economies have experienced a period of substantial economic uncertainty and turmoil, and the related financial markets have been characterized by significant volatility. While the financial markets have begun to stabilize and improve in 2009 and 2010, the U.S. and global economies continue to struggle as a result of high levels of national debt and historic levels of borrowing to support stimulus and financial support spending.
 
Current levels of deficit spending are at high levels and likely are unsustainable for the U.S. and several of its allies, and we expect that U.S. and allied government defense spending may come under increasing pressure as governments search for ways to reduce deficits and national debts. Defense Secretary Gates recently proposed a baseline fiscal 2012 defense budget of $553 billion, which is $6 billion higher than the fiscal 2011 budget request, but $13 billion less than previously planned. Under this budget proposal, the overall defense budget will decline by $78 billion over a five year period beginning in fiscal 2012 from the previous plan, and will include program cancellations and restructurings, including reducing the number of F-35 joint strike fighters from 449 to 325 jets


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over that period. Northrop Grumman is one of the largest subcontractors on the F-35 program, and if approved by Congress, the reduction would impact our revenues.
 
Secretary Gates also outlined future opportunities for which we could compete, including a next generation nuclear capable long-range bomber, additional F/A-18 E/F aircraft to offset the reduction in the F-35 aircraft, as well as numerous opportunities to apply our unmanned airborne technologies and capabilities and our broad sensor technologies to new products and to upgrade several existing platforms.
 
While the real rate of growth in the top line defense budget may be slowing for the first time since 9/11, the U.S. Government’s budgetary process continues to give us good visibility regarding future spending and the threat areas that it is addressing. We believe that our current contracts, and our strong backlog of previously awarded contracts align well with our customer’s future needs, and this provides us with good insight regarding future cash flows from our businesses. Nonetheless, we recognize that no business is immune to the current economic situation and new policy initiatives could adversely affect future defense spending levels, which could lower our expected future revenues. Certain programs in which we participate may be subject to potential reductions due to this slower rate of growth in the U.S. defense budget and the utilization of funds to support the ongoing conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan.
 
Liquidity Trends – In light of the ongoing economic situation, we have evaluated our future liquidity needs, both from a short-term and long-term perspective. We expect that cash on hand at the beginning of the year plus cash generated from operations and cash available under credit lines will be sufficient in 2011 to service debt, finance capital expansion projects, pay federal, foreign, and state income taxes, fund pension and other post-retirement benefit plans, and continue paying dividends to shareholders. We have a committed $2 billion revolving credit facility, with a maturity date of August 10, 2012, that can be accessed on a same-day basis.
 
We believe we can obtain additional capital to provide for long-term liquidity, if necessary, from such sources as the public or private capital markets, the sale of assets, sale and leaseback of operating assets, and leasing rather than purchasing new assets. We have an effective shelf registration statement on file with the SEC. See Liquidity and Capital Resources below for further discussions about our financing activities.
 
Industry Factors
We are subject to the unique characteristics of the U.S. defense industry as a monopsony, whereby demand for our products and services comes primarily from one customer, and by certain elements peculiar to our own business mix.
 
Recent Developments in U.S. Cost Accounting Standards (CAS) Pension Recovery Rules – On May 10, 2010, the CAS Board published a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) that if adopted would provide a framework to partially harmonize the CAS rules with the Pension Protection Act of 2006 (PPA) funding requirements. The NPRM would “harmonize” by mitigating the mismatch between CAS costs and PPA-amended Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA) minimum funding requirements. Until the final rule is published, and to the extent that the final rule does not completely eliminate mismatches between ERISA funding requirements and CAS pension costs, government contractors maintaining defined benefit pension plans will continue to experience a timing mismatch between required contributions and pension expenses recoverable under CAS. The final rule is expected to be issued in 2011 and to apply to contracts starting the year following the award of the first CAS covered contract after the effective date of the new rule. This would mean the rule would apply to our contracts in 2012. We anticipate that contractors will be entitled to an equitable adjustment for any additional CAS contract costs resulting from the final rule.
 
Economic Opportunities, Challenges, and Risks
The United States continues to face a complex and rapidly changing national security environment, while simultaneously addressing domestic economic challenges such as unemployment, federal budget deficits and the growing national debt. The U.S. Government’s investment in capabilities that respond to constantly evolving threats is increasingly being balanced against the need to address domestic economic challenges. We believe that


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the U.S. Government will continue to place a high priority on defense spending and national security, as well as economic challenges, and will continue to invest in sophisticated systems providing long-range surveillance and intelligence, battle management, precision strike, and strategic agility.
 
The U.S. Government faces the additional challenge of recapitalizing equipment and rebuilding readiness while also pursuing modernization and reducing overhead and inefficiency. The DoD has announced several initiatives to improve efficiency, refocus priorities and enhance DoD business practices including those used to procure goods and services from defense contractors.
 
The DoD initiatives are organized into five major areas: affordability and cost growth; productivity and innovation; competition; services acquisition; and processes and bureaucracy. Initial plans resulting from these initiatives were announced in early 2010 and the defense department expects that these initiatives will generate $100 billion in savings. On January 6, 2011, Secretary Gates provided initial details on fiscal year 2012 defense budget and programmatic plans and elaborated on the allocation of the $100 billion in expected savings from efficiency initiatives. The Secretary described plans to allocate $28 billion for increased operating costs and $70 billion for investment in high priority capabilities. In addition to the efficiency savings, the DoD plans to reduce defense spending from its prior plans by $78 billion over the next five fiscal years.
 
At the date of this report, the fiscal year 2012 defense budget has not been submitted by the President and Congress had not yet passed a baseline fiscal year 2011 defense budget or any of the appropriations funding bills relating to our customer base. As a result, the U.S. Government is currently operating under a Continuing Resolution (CR) that funds programs and services at fiscal year 2010 levels. The CR is set to expire on March 4, 2011, after which Congress will either pass a new appropriations bill or extend a CR. The latter case would likely fund programs at fiscal year 2010 levels and would affect the profitability of some of our programs and potentially delay new awards. We anticipate continued spirited debate over defense spending in 2011 as part of a larger dialog around the federal deficit and potential cuts in government spending. Budget decisions made in this environment could have long-term consequences for our company and the entire defense industry.
 
Although reductions to certain programs in which we participate or for which we expect to compete are always possible, we believe that spending on recapitalization, modernization and maintenance of defense and homeland security assets will continue to be a national priority. Future defense spending is expected to include the development and procurement of new manned and unmanned military platforms and systems along with advanced electronics and software to enhance the capabilities of individual systems and provide for the real-time integration of individual surveillance, information management, strike, and battle management platforms. Given the current era of irregular warfare, we expect an increase in investment in persistent awareness with intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) systems, cyber warfare, and expansion of information available for the warfighter to make timely decisions. Other significant new competitive opportunities include long range strike, directed energy applications, missile defense, satellite communications systems, restricted programs, cybersecurity, technical services and information technology contracts, and numerous international and homeland security programs.
 
Prime contracts with various agencies of the U.S. Government and subcontracts with other prime contractors are subject to numerous procurement and other regulations, including the False Claims Act and the International Traffic in Arms Regulations promulgated under the Arms Export Control Act. Noncompliance found by any one agency could result in fines, penalties, debarment, or suspension from receiving contracts with all U.S. Government agencies. We could experience material adverse effects on our business operations if we or a portion of our business were suspended or debarred.
 
We could be affected by future laws or regulations, including those enacted in response to climate change concerns and other actions known as “green initiatives.” We recently established a goal of reducing our greenhouse gas emissions over a five-year period through December 31, 2014. To comply with existing green initiatives and our greenhouse gas emissions goal, we expect to incur capital and operating costs, but at this time


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we do not expect that such costs will have a material adverse effect upon our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
 
See Risk Factors located in Part I, Item 1A for a more complete description of risks faced by us and the defense industry.
 
BUSINESS ACQUISITIONS
 
2009 – We acquired Sonoma Photonics, Inc., as well as assets from Swift Engineering’s Killer Bee Unmanned Air Systems product line in April 2009 for an aggregate amount of approximately $33 million. The operating results from the date of acquisition are reported in the Aerospace Systems segment from the date of acquisition.
 
2008 – We acquired 3001 International, Inc. (3001 Inc.) in October 2008 for approximately $92 million in cash. 3001 Inc. provides geospatial data production and analysis, including airborne imaging, surveying, mapping and geographic information systems for U.S. and international government intelligence, defense and civilian customers. The operating results of 3001 Inc. are reported in the Information Systems segment from the date of acquisition.
 
BUSINESS DISPOSITIONS
 
2009 – We sold our Advisory Services Division (ASD) in December 2009, for $1.65 billion in cash to an investor group led by General Atlantic, LLC and affiliates of Kohlberg Kravis Roberts & Co. L.P., and recognized a gain of $15 million, net of taxes. ASD was a business unit comprised of the assets and liabilities of TASC, Inc., its wholly-owned subsidiary TASC Services Corporation, and certain contracts carved out from other businesses also in Information Systems that provide systems engineering technical assistance (SETA) and other analysis and advisory services. Sales for ASD in the years ended December 31, 2009, and 2008, were approximately $1.5 billion, and $1.6 billion, respectively. The assets, liabilities and operating results of this business unit are reported as discontinued operations in the consolidated financial statements for all periods presented.
 
2008 – We sold our Electro-Optical Systems (EOS) business in April 2008 for $175 million in cash to L-3 Communications Corporation and recognized a gain of $19 million, net of taxes. EOS, formerly a part of the Electronic Systems segment, produces night vision and applied optics products. Sales for this business through April 2008 were approximately $53 million. The assets, liabilities and operating results of this business are reported as discontinued operations in the consolidated financial statements for all periods presented.
 
Discontinued Operations – Earnings for the businesses classified within discontinued operations (primarily as a result of the sale of ASD discussed above) were as follows:
 
                         
    Year Ended December 31
$ in millions   2010    2009    2008
Sales and service revenues
          $ 1,536     $ 1,625  
 
Earnings from discontinued operations
            149       146  
Income tax expense
            (54 )     (55 )
 
Earnings, net of tax
          $ 95     $ 91  
Gain on divestitures
    10       446       66  
Income tax benefit (expense)
    5       (428 )     (40 )
 
Gain from discontinued operations, net of tax
    $15     $ 18     $ 26  
 
Earnings from discontinued operations, net of tax
    $15     $ 113     $ 117  
 
 
CONTRACTS
 
We generate the majority of our business from long-term government contracts for development, production, and support activities. Government contracts typically include the following cost elements: direct material, labor


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and subcontracting costs, and certain indirect costs including allowable general and administrative costs. Unless otherwise specified in a contract, costs billed to contracts with the U.S. Government are determined under the requirements of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) and CAS regulations as allowable and allocable costs. Examples of costs incurred by us and not billed to the U.S. Government in accordance with the requirements of the FAR and CAS regulations include, but are not limited to, certain legal costs, lobbying costs, charitable donations, interest expense and advertising costs.
 
Our long-term contracts typically fall into one of two broad categories:
 
Flexibly Priced Contracts – Includes both cost-type and fixed-price incentive contracts. Cost-type contracts provide for reimbursement of the contractor’s allowable costs incurred plus a fee that represents profit. Cost-type contracts generally require that the contractor use its best efforts to accomplish the scope of the work within some specified time and some stated dollar limitation. Fixed-price incentive contracts also provide for reimbursement of the contractor’s allowable costs, but are subject to a cost-share limit which affects profitability. Fixed-price incentive contracts effectively become firm fixed-price contracts once the cost-share limit is reached.
 
Firm Fixed-Price Contracts – A firm fixed-price contract is a contract in which the specified scope of work is agreed to for a price that is a pre-determined, negotiated amount and not generally subject to adjustment regardless of costs incurred by the contractor. Time-and-materials contracts are considered firm fixed-price contracts as they specify a fixed hourly rate for each labor hour charged.
 
The following table summarizes 2010 revenue recognized by contract type and customer:
 
                                 
    U.S.
  Other
      Percent
($ in millions)   Government   Customers   Total   of Total
Flexibly priced
  $ 23,054     $ 198     $ 23,252       67 %
Firm fixed-price
    9,039       2,466       11,505       33 %
                                 
Total
  $ 32,093     $ 2,664     $ 34,757       100 %
                                 
 
Contract Fees – Negotiated contract fee structures, for both flexibly priced and fixed-price contracts include, but are not limited to: fixed-fee amounts, cost sharing arrangements to reward or penalize for either under or over cost target performance, positive award fees, and negative penalty arrangements. Profit margins may vary materially depending on the negotiated contract fee arrangements, percentage-of-completion of the contract, the achievement of performance objectives, and the stage of performance at which the right to receive fees, particularly under incentive and award fee contracts, is finally determined.
 
Award Fees – Certain contracts contain provisions consisting of award fees based on performance criteria such as cost, schedule, quality, and technical performance. Award fees are determined and earned based on an evaluation by the customer of the company’s performance against such negotiated criteria. Fees that can be reasonably assured and reasonably estimated are recorded over the performance period of the contract. Award fee contracts are used in certain of our operating segments. Examples of significant long-term contracts with substantial negotiated award fee amounts are the Broad Area Maritime Surveillance (BAMS) Unmanned Aircraft System and the majority of satellite contracts.
 
Compliance and Monitoring – We monitor our policies and procedures with respect to our contracts on a regular basis to ensure consistent application under similar terms and conditions as well as compliance with all applicable government regulations. In addition, costs incurred and allocated to contracts with the U.S. Government are routinely audited by the Defense Contract Audit Agency.
 
CRITICAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES, ESTIMATES, AND JUDGMENTS
 
Revenue Recognition
Overview – We derive the majority of our business from long-term contracts for the production of goods and services provided to the federal government, which are accounted for in conformity with accounting principles


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generally accepted in the United States of America (GAAP) for construction-type and production-type contracts and federal government contractors. We classify contract revenues as product sales or service revenues depending on the predominant attributes of the relevant underlying contract. We also enter into contracts that are not associated with the federal government, such as contracts to provide certain services to non-federal government customers. We account for those contracts in accordance with the relevant GAAP revenue recognition principles.
 
We consider the nature of these contracts and the types of products and services provided when determining the proper accounting method for a particular contract.
 
Percentage-of-Completion Accounting – We generally recognize revenues from our long-term contracts under the cost-to-cost or the units-of-delivery measures of the percentage-of-completion method of accounting. The percentage-of-completion method recognizes income as work on a contract progresses. For most contracts, sales are calculated based on the percentage of total costs incurred in relation to total estimated costs at completion of the contract. For certain contracts with large up-front purchases of material, primarily in the Shipbuilding segment, sales are generally calculated based on the percentage that direct labor costs incurred bear to total estimated direct labor costs. The units-of-delivery measure is a modification of the percentage-of-completion method, which recognizes revenues as deliveries are made to the customer generally using unit sales values in accordance with the contract terms. We estimate profit as the difference between total estimated revenue and total estimated cost of a contract and recognize that profit over the life of the contract based on deliveries.
 
The use of the percentage-of-completion method depends on our ability to make reasonably dependable cost estimates for the design, manufacture, and delivery of our products and services. Such costs are typically incurred over a period of several years, and estimation of these costs requires the use of judgment. We record sales under cost-type contracts as costs are incurred.
 
Many contracts contain positive and negative profit incentives based upon performance relative to predetermined targets that may occur during or subsequent to delivery of the product. These incentives take the form of potential additional fees to be earned or penalties to be incurred. Incentives and award fees that can be reasonably assured and reasonably estimated are recorded over the performance period of the contract. Incentives and award fees that are not reasonably assured or cannot be reasonably estimated are recorded when awarded or at such time as a reasonable estimate can be made.
 
Other changes in estimates of contract sales, costs, and profits are recognized using the cumulative catch-up method of accounting. This method recognizes in the current period the cumulative effect of the changes on current and prior periods. Hence, the effect of the changes on future periods of contract performance is recognized as if the revised estimate had been the original estimate. A significant change in an estimate on one or more contracts could have a material effect on our consolidated financial position or results of operations.
 
Certain Service Contracts – We generally recognize revenue under contracts to provide services to non-federal government customers when services are performed. Service contracts include operations and maintenance contracts, and outsourcing-type arrangements, primarily in Technical Services and Information Systems. We generally recognize revenue under such contracts on a straight-line basis over the period of contract performance, unless evidence suggests that the revenue is earned or the obligations are fulfilled in a different pattern. Costs incurred under these service contracts are expensed as incurred, except that direct and incremental set-up costs are capitalized and amortized over the life of the agreement. Operating profit related to such service contracts may fluctuate from period to period, particularly in the earlier phases of the contract.
 
Contracts that include more than one type of product or service are accounted for under the relevant GAAP guidance for revenue arrangements with multiple-elements. Accordingly, for applicable arrangements, revenue recognition includes the proper identification of separate units of accounting and the allocation of revenue across all elements based on relative fair values.
 
Cost Estimation – The cost estimation process requires significant judgment and is based upon the professional knowledge and experience of our engineers, program managers, and financial professionals. Factors that are


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considered in estimating the work to be completed and ultimate contract recovery include the availability, productivity and cost of labor, the nature and complexity of the work to be performed, the effect of change orders, the availability of materials, the effect of any delays in performance, the availability and timing of funding from the customer, and the recoverability of any claims included in the estimates to complete. A significant change in an estimate on one or more contracts could have a material effect on our consolidated financial position or results of operations. We update our contract cost estimates at least annually and more frequently as determined by events or circumstances. We generally review and reassess our cost and revenue estimates for each significant contract on a quarterly basis.
 
We record a provision for the entire loss on the contract in the period the loss is determined when estimates of total costs to be incurred on a contract exceed estimates of total revenue to be earned. We offset loss provisions first against costs that are included in unbilled accounts receivable or inventoried assets, with any remaining amount reflected in liabilities.
 
Purchase Accounting and Goodwill
Overview – We allocate the purchase price of an acquired business to the underlying tangible and intangible assets acquired and liabilities assumed based upon their respective fair market values, with the excess recorded as goodwill. Such fair market value assessments require judgments and estimates that can be affected by contract performance and other factors over time, which may cause final amounts to differ materially from original estimates. Adjustments to the fair value of purchased assets and liabilities after the measurement period are recognized in net earnings.
 
Acquisition Accruals – We establish certain accruals in connection with indemnities and other contingencies from our acquisitions and divestitures. We have recorded these accruals and subsequent adjustments during the purchase price allocation period for acquisitions and as events occur for divestitures. The accruals were determined based upon the terms of the purchase or sales agreements and, in most cases, involve a significant degree of judgment. We recorded these accruals in accordance with our interpretation of the terms of the purchase or sale agreements, known facts, and an estimation of probable future events based on our experience.
 
Tests for Impairment – We perform impairment tests for goodwill as of November 30th of each year, or when evidence of potential impairment exists. We record a charge to operations when we determine that an impairment has occurred. In order to test for potential impairment, we use a discounted cash flow analysis, corroborated by comparative market multiples where appropriate.
 
The principal factors used in the discounted cash flow analysis requiring judgment are the projected results of operations, weighted average cost of capital (WACC), and terminal value assumptions. The WACC takes into account the relative weights of each component of our consolidated capital structure (equity and debt) and represents the expected cost of new capital adjusted as appropriate to consider lower risk profiles associated with longer-term contracts and barriers to market entry. The terminal value assumptions are applied to the final year of the discounted cash flow model.
 
As a result of our announcement to wind down operations at Shipbuilding’s Avondale, Louisiana facility (see Note 7 to the consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8), we performed an interim impairment test on Shipbuilding’s goodwill as of June 30, 2010, and concluded that the estimated fair value of the Shipbuilding reporting unit was substantially in excess of its carrying value.
 
The results of our annual goodwill impairment test as of November 30, 2010, indicated that the estimated fair value of all reporting units were substantially in excess of their carrying values.
 
Due to the many variables inherent in the estimation of a business’s fair value and the relative size of our recorded goodwill, differences in assumptions may have a material effect on the results of our impairment analysis.


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Litigation, Commitments, and Contingencies
Overview – We are subject to a range of claims, lawsuits, environmental and income tax matters, and administrative proceedings that arise in the ordinary course of business. Estimating liabilities and costs associated with these matters requires judgment and assessment based upon professional knowledge and experience of management and our internal and external legal counsel. In accordance with our practices relating to accounting for contingencies, we record amounts as charges to earnings after taking into consideration the facts and circumstances of each matter known to us, including any settlement offers, and determine that it is probable that a liability has been incurred and the amount of the loss can be reasonably estimated. The ultimate resolution of any such exposure to us may vary from earlier estimates as further facts and circumstances become known. When a range of costs is possible and no amount within that range is a better estimate than another, we record the minimum amount of the range.
 
U.S. Government Claims – From time to time, our customers advise us of ordinary course claims and penalties concerning certain potential disallowed costs. When such findings are presented, we engage U.S. Government representatives in discussions to enable us to evaluate the merits of these claims as well as to assess the amounts being claimed. Where appropriate, provisions are made to reflect our expected exposure to the matters raised by the U.S. Government representatives and such provisions are reviewed on a quarterly basis for sufficiency based on the most recent information available.
 
Environmental Accruals – We are subject to the environmental laws and regulations of the jurisdictions in which we conduct operations. We record a liability for the costs of expected environmental remediation obligations when we determine that it is probable we will incur such costs, and the amount of the liability can be reasonably estimated. When a range of costs is possible and no amount within that range is a better estimate than another, we record the minimum amount of the range.
 
Factors which could result in changes to the assessment of probability, range of estimated costs, and environmental accruals include: modification of planned remedial actions, increase or decrease in the estimated time required to remediate, discovery of more extensive contamination than anticipated, results of efforts to involve other legally responsible parties, financial insolvency of other responsible parties, changes in laws and regulations or contractual obligations affecting remediation requirements, and improvements in remediation technology.
 
Litigation Accruals – Litigation accruals are recorded as charges to earnings when management, after taking into consideration the facts and circumstances of each matter, including any settlement offers, has determined that it is probable that a liability has been incurred and the amount of the loss can be reasonably estimated. The ultimate resolution of any exposure to us may vary from earlier estimates as further facts and circumstances become known to us.
 
Uncertain Tax Positions – Tax positions meeting the more-likely-than-not recognition threshold may be recognized or continue to be recognized in the financial statements. The timing and amount of accrued interest is determined by the applicable tax law associated with an underpayment of income taxes. If a tax position does not meet the minimum statutory threshold to avoid payment of penalties, we recognize an expense for the amount of the penalty in the period the tax position is claimed in our tax return. We recognize interest accrued related to unrecognized tax benefits in income tax expense. Penalties, if probable and reasonably estimable, are recognized as a component of income tax expense. See Note 11 to the consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8. Under existing GAAP, prior to January 1, 2009, changes in accruals associated with uncertainties arising from the resolution of pre-acquisition contingencies of acquired businesses were charged or credited to goodwill; effective January 1, 2009, such changes will be recorded to income tax expense. Adjustments to other tax accruals are generally recorded in earnings in the period they are determined.
 
Retirement Benefits
Overview – We annually evaluate assumptions used in determining projected benefit obligations and the fair values of plan assets for our pension plans and other post-retirement benefits plans in consultation with our outside


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actuaries. In the event that we determine that plan amendments or changes in the assumptions are warranted, future pension and post-retirement benefit expenses could increase or decrease.
 
Assumptions – The principal assumptions that have a significant effect on our consolidated financial position and results of operations are the discount rate, the expected long-term rate of return on plan assets, the health care cost trend rate and the estimated fair market value of plan assets. For certain plan assets where the fair market value is not readily determinable, such as real estate, private equity, and hedge funds, estimates of fair value are determined using the best information available.
 
Discount Rate – The discount rate represents the interest rate that is used to determine the present value of future cash flows currently expected to be required to settle the pension and post-retirement benefit obligations. The discount rate is generally based on the yield of high-quality corporate fixed-income investments. At the end of each year, the discount rate is primarily determined using the results of bond yield curve models based on a portfolio of high quality bonds matching the notional cash inflows with the expected benefit payments for each significant benefit plan. Taking into consideration the factors noted above, our weighted-average pension composite discount rate was 5.76 percent at December 31, 2010, and 6.03 percent at December 31, 2009. Holding all other assumptions constant, and since net actuarial gains and losses were in excess of the 10 percent accounting corridor in 2010, an increase or decrease of 25 basis points in the discount rate assumption for 2010 would have decreased or increased pension and post-retirement benefit expense for 2010 by approximately $80 million, of which $3 million relates to post-retirement benefits, and decreased or increased the amount of the benefit obligation recorded at December 31, 2010, by approximately $850 million, of which $70 million relates to post-retirement benefits. The effects of hypothetical changes in the discount rate for a single year may not be representative and may be asymmetrical or nonlinear for future years because of the application of the accounting corridor. The accounting corridor is a defined range within which amortization of net gains and losses is not required. Due to adverse capital market conditions in 2008 our pension plan assets experienced a negative return of approximately 16 percent in 2008. As a result, substantially all of our plans experienced net actuarial losses outside the 10 percent accounting corridor at the end of 2008, thus requiring accumulated gains and losses to be amortized to expense. As a result of this condition, sensitivity of net periodic pension costs to changes in the discount rate were much higher in 2009 and 2010 than was the case in 2008 and prior. This condition is expected to continue into the near future.
 
Expected Long-Term Rate of Return – The expected long-term rate of return on plan assets represents the average rate of earnings expected on the funds invested in a specified target asset allocation to provide for anticipated future benefit payment obligations. For 2010 and 2009, we assumed an expected long-term rate of return on plan assets of 8.5 percent. An increase or decrease of 25 basis points in the expected long-term rate of return assumption for 2010, holding all other assumptions constant, would increase or decrease our pension and post-retirement benefit expense for 2010 by approximately $54 million, of which $2 million relates to post-retirement benefits.
 
Health Care Cost Trend Rates – The health care cost trend rates represent the annual rates of change in the cost of health care benefits based on external estimates of health care inflation, changes in health care utilization or delivery patterns, technological advances, and changes in the health status of the plan participants. Using a combination of market expectations and economic projections including the effect of health care reform, we selected an expected initial health care cost trend rate of 8 percent for 2011 and an ultimate health care cost trend rate of 5 percent reached in 2017. In 2009, we assumed an expected initial health care cost trend rate of 7 percent for 2010 and an ultimate health care cost trend rate of 5 percent reached in 2014. Although our actual cost experience is much lower at this time, market conditions and the potential effects of health care reform are expected to increase medical cost trends in the next one to three years thus our past experience may not reflect future conditions.


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Differences in the initial through the ultimate health care cost trend rates within the range indicated below would have had the following impact on 2010 post-retirement benefit results:
 
                 
    1-Percentage-
  1-Percentage-
$ in millions   Point Increase   Point Decrease
Increase (Decrease) From Change In Health Care Cost Trend Rates To
               
Post-retirement benefit expense
  $ 6     $ (7 )
Post-retirement benefit liability
    74       (86 )
                 


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CONSOLIDATED OPERATING RESULTS
 
Selected financial highlights are presented in the table below.
 
                         
    Year Ended December 31
$ in millions, except per share   2010   2009   2008
Sales and service revenues
  $ 34,757     $ 33,755     $ 32,315  
Cost of sales and service revenues
    (28,609 )     (28,130 )     (26,375 )
General and administrative expenses
    (3,078 )     (3,142 )     (3,143 )
Goodwill impairment
                    (3,060 )
Operating income (loss)
    3,070       2,483       (263 )
Interest expense
    (281 )     (281 )     (295 )
Charge on debt redemption
    (231 )                
Other, net
    37       64       38  
Federal and foreign income taxes
    (557 )     (693 )     (859 )
Diluted earnings (loss) per share from continuing operations
    6.77       4.87       (4.12 )
Net cash provided by operating activities
    2,453       2,133       3,211  
                         
 
Sales and Service Revenues
Sales and service revenues consist of the following:
 
                         
    Year Ended December 31
$ in millions   2010   2009   2008
Product sales
  $ 21,776     $ 20,914     $ 19,634  
Service revenues
    12,981       12,841       12,681  
                         
Sales and service revenues
  $ 34,757     $ 33,755     $ 32,315  
                         
 
2010 – Sales and service revenues increased $1 billion, or 3 percent, over 2009. The increase is due to $862 million higher product sales and $140 million higher service revenues. The 4 percent increase in product sales reflects sales growth in Aerospace Systems and Shipbuilding. The 1 percent increase in service revenues reflects sales growth at Technical Services.
 
2009 – Sales and service revenues increased $1.4 billion, or 4 percent, over 2008. The increase is due to $1.3 billion higher product sales and $160 million higher service revenues. The 7 percent increase in product sales reflects sales growth in Aerospace Systems, Electronic Systems and Shipbuilding. The 1 percent increase in service revenues reflects sales growth in Information Systems and Technical Services.
 
See the Segment Operating Results section below for further information.


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Cost of Sales and Service Revenues
Cost of sales and service revenues and general and administrative expenses are comprised of the following:
 
                         
    Year Ended December 31
$ in millions   2010   2009   2008
Cost of sales and service revenues
                       
Cost of product sales
  $ 16,820     $ 16,591     $ 15,490  
% of product sales
    77.2 %     79.3 %     78.9 %
Cost of service revenues
    11,789       11,539       10,885  
% of service revenues
    90.8 %     89.9 %     85.8 %
General and administrative expenses
    3,078       3,142       3,143  
% of total sales and service revenues
    8.9 %     9.3 %     9.7 %
Goodwill impairment
                    3,060  
                         
Cost of sales and service revenues
  $ 31,687     $ 31,272     $ 32,578  
                         
 
Cost of Product Sales and Service Revenues
2010 – Cost of product sales in 2010 increased $229 million, or 1 percent, over 2009 primarily due to the higher sales volume described above. The decrease in cost of product sales as a percentage of product sales was primarily due to lower GAAP pension expenses and performance improvements in Aerospace Systems and Electronic Systems.
 
Cost of service revenues in 2010 increased $250 million, or 2 percent, over 2009 and as a percentage of service revenues increased 90 basis points, primarily due to program mix changes at Information Systems.
 
2009 – Cost of product sales in 2009 increased $1.1 billion, or 7 percent, over 2008 primarily due to the higher sales volume described above. The increase in cost of product sales as a percentage of product sales was primarily due to higher GAAP pension costs across all of our businesses.
 
Cost of service revenues in 2009 increased $654 million, or 6 percent, over 2008 primarily due to the higher sales volume described above. The increase in cost of service revenues as a percentage of service revenues was primarily due to higher GAAP pension costs across all of our businesses.
 
See the Segment Operating Results section below for further information.
 
General and Administrative Expenses – In accordance with industry practice and the regulations that govern the cost accounting requirements for government contracts, most general corporate expenses incurred at both the segment and corporate locations are considered allowable and allocable costs on government contracts. For most components of the company, these costs are allocated to contracts in progress on a systematic basis and contract performance factors include this cost component as an element of cost. General and administrative expenses primarily relate to segment operations. General and administrative expenses for 2010 decreased $64 million from the prior year primarily due to the 2009 disposition of ASD at our Information Systems segment. General and administrative expenses as a percentage of total sales and service revenues decreased from 9.3 percent in 2009 to 8.9 percent in 2010, primarily due to cost reductions realized from the 2009 streamlining of our organizational structure from seven to five operating segments. General and administrative expenses as a percentage of total sales and service revenues decreased from 9.7 percent in 2008 to 9.3 percent in 2009, primarily due to lower corporate overhead costs and a $64 million gain from a legal settlement in 2009, net of legal provisions and related expenses.
 
Goodwill Impairment – In 2008, we recorded a non-cash charge totaling $3.1 billion at Aerospace Systems and Shipbuilding as a result of adverse equity market conditions that caused a decrease in market multiples and our stock price.


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Operating Income (Loss)
We consider operating income to be an important measure for evaluating our operating performance and, as is typical in the industry, we define operating income as revenues less the related cost of producing the revenues and general and administrative expenses. We also further evaluate operating income for each of the business segments in which we operate.
 
We internally manage our operations by reference to “segment operating income.” Segment operating income is defined as operating income before unallocated expenses and net pension adjustment, neither of which affect the operating results of segments, and the reversal of royalty income, which is classified as “other, net” for financial reporting purposes. Segment operating income is one of the key metrics we use to evaluate operating performance. Segment operating income is not, however, a measure of financial performance under GAAP, and may not be defined and calculated by other companies in the same manner.
 
The table below reconciles segment operating income to total operating income:
 
                         
    Year Ended December 31
$ in millions   2010   2009   2008
Segment operating income (loss)
  $ 3,326     $ 2,929     $ (299 )
Unallocated corporate expenses
    (220 )     (111 )     (157 )
Net pension adjustment
    (25 )     (311 )     263  
Royalty income adjustment
    (11 )     (24 )     (70 )
 
Total operating income (loss)
  $ 3,070     $ 2,483     $ (263 )
                         
 
Segment Operating Income (Loss)
Segment operating income in 2010 increased $397 million, or 14 percent, as compared with 2009. Total segment operating income was 9.6 percent and 8.7 percent of total sales and service revenues in 2010 and 2009, respectively. The increase in 2010 segment operating income is primarily due to the 3 percent increase in sales volume and performance improvements across all operating segments. Segment operating income in 2009 was $2.9 billion as compared with segment operating loss of $299 million in 2008. The loss in 2008 was primarily due to goodwill impairment charges totaling $3.1 billion at Aerospace Systems and Shipbuilding. See discussion of Segment Operating Results below for further information.
 
Unallocated Corporate Expenses
Unallocated corporate expenses generally include the portion of corporate expenses not considered allowable or allocable under applicable CAS and FAR rules, and therefore not allocated to the segments, such as management and administration, legal, environmental, certain compensation and retiree benefits, and other expenses. Unallocated corporate expenses for 2010 increased $109 million, or 98 percent, as compared with 2009, primarily due to inclusion of a $64 million net gain from a legal settlement in 2009, as well as an increase in environmental, health and welfare, and stock compensation expenses in 2010. Unallocated corporate expenses for 2009 decreased $46 million, or 29 percent, as compared with 2008, primarily due to a $64 million gain from a legal settlement in 2009, net of legal provisions and related expenses, partially offset by higher costs related to environmental remediation and post-retirement employee benefits.
 
Net Pension Adjustment
Net pension adjustment reflects the difference between pension expenses determined in accordance with GAAP and pension expense allocated to the operating segments determined in accordance with CAS. The pension adjustment in 2010 decreased by $286 million as compared with 2009 primarily due to lower GAAP pension expense as a result of favorable returns on pension plan assets in 2009. The net pension adjustment in 2009 was an expense of $311 million, as compared with income of $263 million in 2008. The net pension expense in 2009 was primarily the result of negative returns on plan assets in 2008.


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Royalty Income Adjustment
Royalty income is included in segment operating income and reclassified to other income for financial reporting purposes. See Other, net below.
 
Interest Expense
2010 – Interest expense in 2010 was comparable to 2009.
 
2009 – Interest expense in 2009 decreased $14 million, or 5 percent, as compared with 2008. The decrease is primarily due to higher capitalized interest and lower interest rates.
 
Charge on Debt Redemption
2010 – In November 2010, we repurchased outstanding debt held by our subsidiaries, Northrop Grumman Systems Corporation and Northrop Grumman Shipbuilding, Inc., and recorded a pre-tax charge of $231 million primarily related to premiums paid on the debt tendered. See Liquidity and Capital Resources below and Note 14 to the consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8.
 
Other, net
2010 – Other, net for 2010 decreased $27 million as compared with 2009, primarily due to lower royalty income and lower returns on investments in marketable securities used as a funding source for non-qualified employee benefits.
 
2009 – Other, net for 2009 increased $26 million as compared with 2008, primarily due to positive mark-to-market adjustments on investments in marketable securities used as funding for non-qualified employee benefits and a gain from the recovery of a loan to an affiliate, which more than offset the benefit in the prior year of $60 million of royalty income from patent infringement settlements.
 
Federal and Foreign Income Taxes
2010 – Our effective tax rate on earnings from continuing operations for 2010 was 21.5 percent compared with 30.6 percent in 2009. In 2010, we recognized net tax benefits of approximately $296 million to reflect the final approval from the IRS and the U.S. Congressional Joint Committee on Taxation (Joint Committee) of the IRS’ examination of our tax returns for the years 2004 through 2006. In 2009, we recognized net tax benefits of approximately $75 million primarily as a result of a final settlement with the IRS Office of Appeals and the Joint Committee related to our tax returns for years ended 2001 through 2003.
 
2009 – Our effective tax rate on earnings from continuing operations for 2009 was 30.6 percent compared with 33.8 percent in 2008 (excluding the non-cash, non-deductible goodwill impairment charge of $3.1 billion at Aerospace Systems and Shipbuilding). The 2009 tax rate reflects net tax benefits of approximately $75 million related to a final settlement with the IRS as discussed above.
 
Discontinued Operations
2010 – Earnings from discontinued operations, net of tax was $15 million and is primarily attributable to adjustments to the gain on the 2009 sale of ASD to reflect purchase price adjustments and the utilization of additional capital loss carry-forwards.
 
2009 – Earnings from discontinued operations, net of tax was $113 million for 2009, compared with $117 million in 2008. The earnings were primarily attributable to the operating results and gain on disposition of ASD, which was sold in December 2009. See Note 6 to the consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8.
 
Diluted Earnings (Loss) Per Share
2010 – Diluted earnings per share from continuing operations in 2010 were $6.77 per share, as compared with $4.87 diluted earnings per share in 2009. Diluted earnings per share are based on weighted-average diluted shares outstanding of 301.1 million for 2010 and 323.3 million for 2009, respectively.
 
2009 – Diluted earnings per share from continuing operations in 2009 were $4.87 per share, as compared with $4.12 diluted loss per share in 2008. Earnings per share are based on weighted-average diluted shares outstanding


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of 323.3 million for 2009 and weighted average basic shares outstanding of 334.5 million for 2008. For the year ended December 31, 2008, the potential dilutive effect of 7.1 million shares from stock options, stock awards, and the mandatorily redeemable preferred stock were excluded from the computation of weighted average shares outstanding as the shares would have had an anti-dilutive effect. The goodwill impairment charge of $3.1 billion at Aerospace Systems and Shipbuilding reduced our 2008 diluted earnings per share from continuing operations by $9.15 per share.
 
Net Cash Provided by Operating Activities
2010 – Net cash provided by operating activities in 2010 was $2.5 billion as compared with $2.1 billion in 2009 and reflects improved cash collections from our customers and lower tax payments, primarily due to $508 million taxes paid in 2009 related to the sale of ASD. In 2010, we contributed $894 million to our pension plans, of which $830 million was voluntarily pre-funded, as compared with $858 million in 2009, of which $800 million was voluntarily pre-funded. Income taxes paid, net of refunds, was $1.1 billion in 2010, as compared with $1.3 billion in 2009.
 
Net cash provided by operating activities for 2010 included $94 million of federal and state income tax refunds and $11 million of interest income received.
 
2009 – Net cash provided by operating activities in 2009 was $2.1 billion compared with $3.2 billion in 2008 and reflects higher pension plan contributions and income tax payments. In 2009, we contributed $858 million to our pension plans, of which $800 million was voluntarily pre-funded, as compared with $320 million in 2008, of which $200 million was voluntarily pre-funded. Income taxes paid, net of refunds, was $1.3 billion in 2009, as compared with $719 million in 2008. Income taxes paid in 2009 included $508 million resulting from the sale of ASD.
 
Net cash provided by operating activities for 2009 included $171 million of federal and state income tax refunds and $11 million of interest income.
 
SEGMENT OPERATING RESULTS
 
Basis of Presentation
We are aligned into five reportable segments: Aerospace Systems, Electronic Systems, Information Systems, Shipbuilding and Technical Services. See Note 8 in Part II, Item 8 for more information about our segments.
 
In January 2010, we transferred our internal information technology services unit from the Information Systems segment to our corporate shared services group. The intersegment sales and operating income for this unit that were previously recognized in the Information Systems segment are immaterial and have been eliminated for the years presented.
 
                         
    Year Ended December 31
$ in millions   2010   2009   2008
Sales and Service Revenues
                       
Aerospace Systems
  $ 10,910     $ 10,419     $ 9,825  
Electronic Systems
    7,613       7,671       7,048  
Information Systems
    8,395       8,536       8,174  
Shipbuilding
    6,719       6,213       6,145  
Technical Services
    3,230       2,776       2,535  
Intersegment eliminations
    (2,110 )     (1,860 )     (1,412 )
                         
Total sales and service revenues
  $ 34,757     $ 33,755     $ 32,315  
                         
 


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    Year Ended December 31
$ in millions   2010   2009   2008
Operating Income (Loss)
                       
Aerospace Systems
  $ 1,256     $ 1,071     $ 416  
Electronic Systems
    1,023       969       947  
Information Systems
    756       624       626  
Shipbuilding
    325       299       (2,307 )
Technical Services
    206       161       144  
Intersegment eliminations
    (240 )     (195 )     (125 )
 
Total Segment Operating Income (Loss)
    3,326       2,929       (299 )
Non-segment factors affecting operating income (loss)
                       
Unallocated corporate expenses
    (220 )     (111 )     (157 )
Net pension adjustment
    (25 )     (311 )     263  
Royalty income adjustment
    (11 )     (24 )     (70 )
 
Total operating income (loss)
  $ 3,070     $ 2,483     $ (263 )
 
 
See Consolidated Operating Results – Operating Income (Loss) above for more information on non-segment factors affecting our operating results.
 
KEY SEGMENT FINANCIAL MEASURES
 
Operating Performance Assessment and Reporting
We manage and assess the performance of our businesses based on our performance on individual contracts and programs obtained generally from government organizations using the financial measures referred to below, with consideration given to the Critical Accounting Policies, Estimates and Judgments described on page 32. As indicated in our discussion on “Contracts” on page 31, our portfolio of long-term contracts is largely flexibly-priced, which means that sales tend to fluctuate in concert with costs across our large portfolio of active contracts, with operating income being a critical measure of operational performance. Due to FAR rules that govern our business, most types of costs are allowable, and we do not focus on individual cost groupings (such as cost of sales or general and administrative costs) as much as we do on total contract costs, which are a key factor in determining contract operating income. As a result, in evaluating our operating performance, we look primarily at changes in sales and service revenues, and operating income, including the effects of significant changes in operating income as a result of changes in contract estimates and the use of the cumulative catch-up method of accounting in accordance with GAAP. Unusual fluctuations in operating performance attributable to changes in a specific cost element across multiple contracts, however, are described in our analysis. Based on this approach and the nature of our operations, the discussion of results of operations generally focuses around our five segments versus distinguishing between products and services. Our Aerospace Systems, Electronic Systems and Shipbuilding segments generate predominantly product sales, while the Information Systems and Technical Services segments generate predominantly service revenues.
 
Sales and Service Revenues
Period-to-period sales reflect performance under new and ongoing contracts. Changes in sales and service revenues are typically expressed in terms of volume. Unless otherwise described, volume generally refers to increases (or decreases) in reported revenues due to varying production activity levels, delivery rates, or service levels on individual contracts. Volume changes will typically carry a corresponding income change based on the margin rate for a particular contract.

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Segment Operating Income
Segment operating income reflects the aggregate performance results of contracts within a business area or segment. Excluded from this measure are certain costs not directly associated with contract performance, including the portion of corporate expenses such as management and administration, legal, environmental, certain compensation and other retiree benefits, and other expenses not considered allowable or allocable under applicable CAS regulations and the FAR, and therefore not allocated to the segments. Changes in segment operating income are typically expressed in terms of volume, as discussed above, or performance. Performance refers to changes in contract margin rates. These changes typically relate to profit recognition associated with revisions to total estimated costs at completion of the contract (EAC) that reflect improved (or deteriorated) operating performance on a particular contract. Operating income changes are accounted for on a cumulative to date basis at the time an EAC change is recorded.
 
Operating income may also be affected by, among other things, the effects of workforce stoppages, natural disasters (such as hurricanes and earthquakes), resolution of disputed items with the customer, recovery of insurance proceeds, and other discrete events. At the completion of a long-term contract, any originally estimated costs not incurred or reserves not fully utilized (such as warranty reserves) could also impact contract earnings. Where such items have occurred, and the effects are material, a separate description is provided.
 
For a more complete understanding of each segment’s product and services, see the business descriptions in Part I, Item 1.
 
Program Descriptions
For convenience, a brief description of certain programs discussed in this Form 10-K are included in the “Glossary of Programs” beginning on page 54.
 
AEROSPACE SYSTEMS
                         
    Year Ended December 31
$ in millions   2010   2009   2008
Sales and Service Revenues
  $ 10,910     $ 10,419     $ 9,825  
Segment Operating Income
    1,256       1,071       416  
As a percentage of segment sales
    11.5 %     10.3 %     4.2 %
 
Sales and Service Revenues
2010 – Aerospace Systems revenue increased $491 million, or 5 percent, as compared with 2009. The increase is primarily due to $517 million higher sales in Battle Management & Engagement Systems (BM&ES) and $218 million higher sales in Strike & Surveillance Systems (S&SS), partially offset by $315 million lower sales in Advanced Programs & Technology (AP&T). The increase in BM&ES is due to higher sales volume on the Broad Area Maritime Surveillance (BAMS) Unmanned Aircraft System, EA-6B, EA-18G, E-2 and Long Endurance Multi-Intelligence Vehicle (LEMV) programs. The increase in S&SS is primarily due to higher sales volume associated with manned and unmanned aircraft programs, such as the Global Hawk High-Altitude Long-Endurance (HALE) Systems, the F-35 Lightning II (F-35), B-2 Stealth Bomber and F/A-18, partially offset by the termination of the Kinetic Energy Interceptor (KEI) program in 2009 and decreased activity on the Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM) program. The decrease in AP&T is primarily due to lower sales volume on restricted programs and the Navy Unmanned Combat Air System (N-UCAS) program.
 
2009 – Aerospace Systems revenue increased $594 million, or 6 percent, as compared with 2008. The increase was primarily due to $201 million higher sales in Space Systems (SS), $201 million higher sales in BM&ES, and $191 million higher sales in S&SS. The increase in SS was primarily due to the ramp-up of restricted programs awarded in 2008, partially offset by decreased sales volume on the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) and cancellation of the Transformational Satellite Communications System (TSAT) program. The increase in BM&ES was primarily due to higher sales volume on the BAMS Unmanned Aircraft System, the E-2D Advanced Hawkeye, and the EA-18G programs, partially offset by lower


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sales volume on the E2-C as the program is nearing completion. The increase in S&SS was primarily due to higher sales volume from the Global Hawk HALE Systems, F-35, F/A-18, and B-2 programs, partially offset by decreased activity on the KEI program, which was terminated for convenience in 2009, and the ICBM program.
 
Segment Operating Income
2010 – Aerospace Systems operating income increased $185 million, or 17 percent, as compared with 2009. The increase is primarily due to $128 million in net performance improvements across various programs, principally within SS, and $57 million from the higher sales volume discussed above.
 
2009 – Aerospace Systems operating income increased $655 million, or 157 percent, as compared with 2008. The increase was primarily due to a 2008 goodwill impairment charge of $570 million (see Note 12 to the consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8), $61 million from the higher sales volume discussed above, and $24 million in improved program performance. The $24 million in improved program performance was principally due to $67 million in performance improvements in S&SS programs, primarily related to the ICBM program and the Global Hawk HALE Systems, partially offset by $33 million in lower performance across various programs in SS and BM&ES.
 
ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS
                         
    Year Ended December 31
$ in millions   2010   2009   2008
Sales and Service Revenues
  $ 7,613     $ 7,671     $ 7,048  
Segment Operating Income
    1,023       969       947  
As a percentage of segment sales
    13.4 %     12.6 %     13.4 %
 
Sales and Service Revenues
2010 – Electronic Systems revenue decreased $58 million, or less than 1 percent, as compared with 2009. The decrease is primarily due to $150 million lower sales in Land & Self Protection Systems, $84 million lower sales in Intelligence, Surveillance & Reconnaissance (ISR) Systems and $82 million lower sales in Naval & Marine Systems, partially offset by $186 million higher sales in Targeting Systems and $72 million higher sales in Advanced Concepts & Technologies. The decrease in Land & Self Protection Systems is due to lower sales volume on the Ground/Air Task Oriented Radar (G/ATOR) program as it transitions from the development phase to the integration and test phase and lower unit deliveries on the Vehicular Intercommunications Systems (VIS) program. The decrease in ISR Systems is due to lower sales volume on the Space Based Infrared Systems (SBIRS) program as it transitions to follow-on production, postal automation programs and various international programs. The decrease in Naval & Marine Systems is due to lower volume on the ship-board Cobra Judy replacement radar program. The increase in Targeting Systems is due to higher sales volume on the F-35, various laser systems and restricted programs and increased unit deliveries of the LITENING targeting pod system. The increase in Advanced Concepts & Technologies is primarily due to volume on restricted programs.
 
2009 – Electronic Systems revenue increased $623 million, or 9 percent, as compared with 2008. The increase was primarily due to $213 million higher sales in Targeting Systems, $188 million higher sales in ISR Systems, $88 million higher sales in Land & Self Protection Systems, $80 million higher sales in Navigation Systems and $30 million higher sales in Naval & Marine Systems. The increase in Targeting Systems was due to higher sales volume on the F-35 and restricted programs. The increase in ISR Systems was due to higher sales volume on SBIRS follow-on production and intercompany programs. The increase in Land & Self Protection Systems was due to higher deliveries associated with the Large Aircraft Infrared Countermeasures (LAIRCM) program, higher volume on the B-52 Sustainment and intercompany programs. The increase in Navigation Systems was due to higher volume on Inertial and Fiber Optic Gyro navigation programs. The increase in Naval & Marine Systems was due to higher volume on power and propulsion systems for the Virginia-class submarine program.


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Segment Operating Income
2010 – Electronic Systems operating income increased $54 million, or 6 percent, as compared with 2009. The increase is primarily due to net performance improvements in land and self protection programs, higher volume in Targeting Systems, and lower operating loss provisions in postal automation programs.
 
2009 – Electronic Systems operating income increased $22 million, or 2 percent, as compared with 2008. The increase was primarily due to $79 million from the higher sales volume discussed above, partially offset by $57 million in higher unfavorable performance adjustments in 2009. The higher unfavorable performance adjustments in 2009 were due to adjustments of $98 million in ISR Systems, primarily on the Flats Sequencing System postal automation program, partially offset by favorable performance adjustments in targeting systems and land and self protection programs. Operating performance adjustments in 2008 included royalty income of $60 million and a $20 million charge for the MESA Wedgetail program associated with potential liquidated damages arising from the prime contractor’s announced schedule delay in completing the program.
 
INFORMATION SYSTEMS
                         
    Year Ended December 31
$ in millions   2010   2009   2008
Sales and Service Revenues
  $ 8,395     $ 8,536     $ 8,174  
Segment Operating Income
    756       624       626  
As a percentage of segment sales
    9.0 %     7.3 %     7.7 %
 
Sales and Service Revenues
2010 – Information Systems revenue decreased $141 million, or 2 percent, as compared with 2009. The decrease is primarily due to $130 million lower sales in Intelligence Systems and $57 million lower sales in Civil Systems, partially offset by $55 million higher sales in Defense Systems. The decrease in Intelligence Systems is primarily due to lower sales volume on restricted programs and the loss of the Navstar Global Positioning System Operational Control Segment (GPS OCX) program. The decrease in Civil Systems is primarily due to lower sales volume on the New York City Wireless (NYCWiN) and Armed Forces Health Longitudinal Technology Application (AHLTA) programs. The increase in Defense Systems is primarily due to program growth on Battlefield Airborne Communications Node (BACN), Joint National Integration Center Research and Development Contract (JRDC) and Integrated Battle Command System (IBCS) activities, partially offset by lower sales volume on the Trailer Mounted Support System (TMSS) program as it nears completion, and decreased Systems and Software Engineer Support activities.
 
2009 – Information Systems revenue increased $362 million, or 4 percent, as compared with 2008. The increase was primarily due to $285 million in higher sales in Intelligence Systems and $194 million in higher sales in Defense Systems, partially offset by $123 million in lower sales in Civil Systems. The increase in Intelligence Systems was primarily due to program growth on the Counter Narco-Terrorism Program Office (CNTPO), Guardrail Common Sensor System indefinite delivery indefinite quantity (IDIQ) and certain restricted programs, partially offset by lower sales volume on the Navstar GPS OCX program. The increase in Defense Systems was primarily due to program growth on TMSS, Airborne and Maritime/Fixed Stations Joint Tactical Radio Systems and BACN programs, partially offset by fewer delivery orders on the Force XXI Battle Brigade and Below (FBCB2) I-Kits program. The decrease in Civil Systems was primarily due to lower volume on NYCWiN and Virginia IT outsourcing (VITA) programs.
 
Segment Operating Income
2010 – Information Systems operating income increased $132 million, or 21 percent, as compared with 2009 and as percentage of sales increased 170 basis points. The increase is primarily due to performance improvements on Civil Systems programs. In 2009, operating income included $37 million of non-recurring costs associated with the sale of ASD.


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2009 – Information Systems operating income decreased $2 million as compared with 2008. The decrease was primarily due to $30 million from the higher sales volume discussed above, offset by non-recurring costs associated with the sale of ASD and unfavorable performance results in Civil Systems programs, principally due to the VITA outsourcing program for the Commonwealth of Virginia.
 
SHIPBUILDING
                         
    Year Ended December 31
$ in millions   2010   2009   2008
Sales and Service Revenues
  $ 6,719     $ 6,213     $ 6,145  
Segment Operating Income (Loss)
    325       299       (2,307 )
As a percentage of segment sales
    4.8 %     4.8 %     (37.5 %)
 
Sales and Service Revenues
2010 – Shipbuilding revenue increased $506 million, or 8 percent, as compared with 2009. The increase is due to $388 million higher sales in Expeditionary Warfare, $144 million higher sales in Aircraft Carriers and $114 million in higher sales in Submarines, partially offset by $98 million lower sales in Surface Combatants. The increase in Expeditionary Warfare is primarily due to higher sales volume on the LPD and LHA programs, partially offset by delivery of the LHD 8 in 2009. In the second quarter of 2010, we announced the wind-down of shipbuilding operations at the Avondale, Louisiana facility in 2013 (see Note 7 to the consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8) and reduced revenues by $115 million to reflect revised estimates to complete LPDs 23 and 25. In the year-ended December 31, 2009, we reduced revenues by $160 million to reflect revised estimates to complete the LPD-class ships and the LHA 6. The increase in Aircraft Carriers is primarily due to higher sales volume on the Gerald R. Ford construction program and the USS Theodore Roosevelt Refueling and Complex Overhaul (RCOH), partially offset by the delivery of USS George H.W. Bush and re-delivery of the USS Enterprise and USS Carl Vinson in early 2010 and 2009, respectively. The increase in Submarines is due to higher sales volume on the Virginia-class submarines. The decrease in Surface Combatants is due to lower sales volume on the DDG programs.
 
2009 – Shipbuilding revenue increased $68 million, or 1 percent, as compared with 2008. The increase was due to $180 million higher sales in Submarines, $58 million higher sales in Expeditionary Warfare and $39 million higher sales in Aircraft Carriers, partially offset by $113 million lower sales in Fleet Support and $109 million lower sales in Surface Combatants. The increase in Submarines was primarily due to higher sales volume on the construction of the Virginia-class submarines. The increase in Expeditionary Warfare was due to higher sales volume in the LPD program due to production ramp-ups, partially offset by the delivery of the LHD 8. The decrease in Fleet Support was primarily due to the redelivery of the USS Toledo submarine in the first quarter of 2009 and decreased carrier fleet support services. The decrease in Surface Combatants was primarily due to lower sales volume on the DDG 51 program.
 
Segment Operating Income (Loss)
2010 – Shipbuilding operating income increased $26 million, or 9 percent, as compared with 2009, primarily due to the higher sales volume discussed above. Operating income in 2010 includes the effects of unfavorable performance adjustments on Expeditionary Warfare programs, partially offset by milestone incentives on the LPD contracts. In Expeditionary Warfare, we recorded unfavorable performance adjustments of $132 million on LPDs 22 through 25, including the effect of a $113 million charge for the cumulative effect of the $210 million of incremental costs expected in connection with our decision to wind down shipbuilding operations at the Avondale facility in 2013 (see Note 7 to the consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8). Additionally, we recognized an unfavorable adjustment of $30 million to reflect additional costs to complete post-delivery work for the LHD 8. In 2009, operating income included $38 million and $171 million in unfavorable performance adjustments on the DDG 51 and LPD 17 programs, partially offset by a $54 million favorable adjustment on the LHD 8 contract.


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2009 – Shipbuilding operating income was $299 million as compared with operating loss of $2.3 billion in 2008. The increase was primarily due to the 2008 goodwill impairment charge of $2.5 billion (See Note 12 to the consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8), and improved performance in Expeditionary Warfare as compared to 2008. In 2008, the Expeditionary Warfare business had net negative performance adjustments of $263 million due principally to adjustments on the LHD 8 contract, cost growth and schedule delays on the LPD program and the effects of Hurricane Ike on a subcontractor’s performance.
 
TECHNICAL SERVICES
                         
    Year Ended December 31
$ in millions   2010   2009   2008
Sales and Service Revenues
  $ 3,230     $ 2,776     $ 2,535  
Segment Operating Income
    206       161       144  
As a percentage of segment sales
    6.4 %     5.8 %     5.7 %
 
Sales and Service Revenues
2010 – Technical Services revenue increased $454 million, or 16 percent, as compared with 2009. The increase is primarily due to $379 million higher sales in the Integrated Logistics and Modernization Division (ILMD). The increase in ILMD is primarily due to the continued ramp-up of the recently awarded KC-10 and C-20 programs.
 
2009 – Technical Services revenue increased $241 million, or 10 percent, as compared with 2008. The increase was primarily due to $245 million higher sales in ILMD, and $74 million higher sales in Training Solutions Division (TSD), partially offset by $72 million lower sales in Defense and Government Services Division (DGSD). The increase in ILMD was due to increased task orders for the CNTPO program and higher demand on the Hunter Contractor Logistics Support (CLS) programs in support of the DoD’s surge in Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) initiatives. The increase in TSD was due to higher volume on various training and simulation programs including the Joint Warfighting Center Support, Saudi Arabia National Guard Modernization and Training, Global Linguist Solutions, National Level Exercise 2009 and African Contingency Operations Training Assistance programs. These increases were partially offset by lower 2009 sales in DGSD due to the completion of the Joint Base Operations Support program in 2008.
 
Segment Operating Income
2010 – Operating income at Technical Services increased $45 million, or 28 percent, as compared with 2009. The increase is primarily due to the higher sales volume discussed above. Operating income as a percentage of sales increased 60 basis points and reflects improved program performance and business mix changes.
 
2009 – Operating income at Technical Services increased $17 million, or 12 percent, as compared with 2008. The increase was primarily due to the higher sales volume discussed above and $3 million from performance improvements across numerous programs.
 
BACKLOG
 
Definition
Total backlog at December 31, 2010, was approximately $64.2 billion. Total backlog includes both funded backlog (firm orders for which funding is contractually obligated by the customer) and unfunded backlog (firm orders for which funding is not currently contractually obligated by the customer). Unfunded backlog excludes unexercised contract options and unfunded indefinite delivery indefinite quantity (IDIQ) orders. For multi-year services contracts with non-federal government customers having no stated contract values, backlog includes only the amounts committed by the customer.


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The following table presents funded and unfunded backlog by segment at December 31, 2010, and 2009:
 
                                                 
    2010   2009
            Total
          Total
$ in millions   Funded   Unfunded   Backlog   Funded   Unfunded   Backlog
Aerospace Systems
  $ 9,185     $ 11,683     $ 20,868     $ 8,320     $ 16,063     $ 24,383  
Electronic Systems
    8,093       2,054       10,147       7,591       2,784       10,375  
Information Systems
    4,711       5,879       10,590       4,319       4,508       8,827  
Shipbuilding
    9,569       7,772       17,341       11,294       9,151       20,445  
Technical Services
    2,763       2,474       5,237       2,352       2,804       5,156  
     
     
Total Backlog
  $ 34,321     $ 29,862     $ 64,183     $ 33,876     $ 35,310     $ 69,186  
                                                 
 
Backlog is converted into the following years’ sales as costs are incurred or deliveries are made. Approximately 48 percent of the $64.2 billion total backlog at December 31, 2010, is expected to be converted into sales in 2011. Total U.S. Government orders, including those made on behalf of foreign governments, comprised 91 percent of the total backlog at the end of 2010. Total foreign customer orders accounted for 5 percent of the total backlog at the end of 2010. Domestic commercial backlog represented 4 percent of total backlog at the end of 2010.
 
Backlog Adjustments
2010 – A $1.1 billion reduction in backlog was recorded in 2010 as a result of the restructure of the NPOESS program at our Aerospace Systems segment.
 
Backlog was also impacted in 2010 by an agreement we reached with the Commonwealth of Virginia related to the VITA contract. The agreement defined minimum revenue amounts for the remaining years under the base contract and extended the contract for three additional years through 2019. We recorded a favorable backlog adjustment of $824 million for the definitization of the base contract revenues for years 2011 through 2016, while the contract extension and 2010 portion of the base contract revenues, totaling $802 million, were recorded as new awards in the period in our Information Systems segment.
 
2009 – Total backlog in 2009 reflects a negative backlog adjustment of $5.8 billion for the Kinetic Energy Interceptor program termination for convenience at Aerospace Systems and the DDG 1000 program restructure at Shipbuilding.
 
New Awards
2010 – The estimated value of contract awards included in backlog during the year ended December 31, 2010, was $30 billion. Significant new awards during this period include $1.2 billion for the Global Hawk HALE program, $979 million for the E-2 Hawkeye programs, $942 million for the AEHF program, $802 million for the VITA program, $677 million for the Joint National Integration Center Research and Development contract, $656 million for the F/A 18 Hornet Strike Fighter program, $654 million for the ICBM program, $631 million for the B-2 Stealth Bomber programs, $579 million for the F-35 program, $565 million for the NSTec program, $507 for the KC-10 program, $505 million for the Large Aircraft Infrared Counter-measures programs and various restricted awards.
 
2009 – The estimated value of new contract awards during the year ended December 31, 2009, was $32.3 billion. Significant new awards during this period include a contract valued up to $2.4 billion for the USS Theodore Roosevelt RCOH, $1.2 billion for the F-35 LRIP program, $1.2 billion for the Global Hawk HALE program, $1 billion for the B-2 program, up to $635 million for engineering, design and modernization support of new construction, operational, and decommissioning submarines, $485 million for the Nevada Test Site program, $484 million for the E2-D LRIP program, $437 million for the IBCS program, $403 million for the


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SBIRS follow on production program, $385 million for the Saudi Arabian National Guard Modernization and Training program, $374 million for the Gerald R. Ford aircraft carrier, $360 million for the BACN program, $296 million to finalize the development of the Distributed Common Ground System-Army (DCGS-A), $286 million for the LAIRCM IDIQ, and various restricted awards.
 
LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES
 
We endeavor to ensure the most efficient conversion of operating results into cash for deployment in growing our businesses and maximizing shareholder value. We actively manage our capital resources through working capital improvements, capital expenditures, strategic business acquisitions and divestitures, debt issuance and repayment, required and voluntary pension contributions, and returning cash to our shareholders through dividend payments and repurchases of common stock.
 
We use various financial measures to assist in capital deployment decision-making, including net cash provided by operations, free cash flow, net debt-to-equity, and net debt-to-capital. We believe these measures are useful to investors in assessing our financial performance.
 
The table below summarizes key components of cash flow provided by operating activities.
 
                         
    Year Ended December 31
$ in millions   2010   2009   2008
Net earnings (loss)
  $ 2,053     $ 1,686     $ (1,262 )
(Earnings) from discontinued operations
            (95 )     (91 )
Gain on sale of businesses
            (446 )     (58 )
Charge on debt redemption
    231                  
Impairment of goodwill
                    3,060  
Other non-cash items(1)
    881       951       993  
Retiree benefit funding in excess of expense
    (326 )     (20 )     (167 )
Trade working capital (increase) decrease
    (386 )     (45 )     563  
Cash provided by discontinued operations
            102       173  
                         
Net cash provided by operating activities
  $ 2,453     $ 2,133     $ 3,211  
                         
 
(1) Includes depreciation & amortization, stock based compensation expense and deferred taxes.
 
Free Cash Flow
Free cash flow represents cash from operating activities less capital expenditures and outsourcing contract and related software costs. Outsourcing contract and related software costs are similar to capital expenditures in that the contract costs represent incremental external costs or certain specific internal costs that are directly related to the contract acquisition and transition/set-up. These outsourcing contract and related software costs are deferred and expensed over the contract life. We believe free cash flow is a useful measure for investors to consider. This measure is a key factor used by management in our planning for and consideration of strategic acquisitions, stock repurchases and the payment of dividends.
 
Free cash flow is not a measure of financial performance under GAAP, and may not be defined and calculated by other companies in the same manner. This measure should not be considered in isolation, as a measure of residual cash flow available for discretionary purposes, or as an alternative to operating results presented in accordance with GAAP as indicators of performance.


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The table below reconciles net cash provided by operating activities to free cash flow:
 
                         
    Year Ended December 31
$ in millions   2010   2009   2008
Net cash provided by operating activities
  $ 2,453     $ 2,133     $ 3,211  
Less:
                       
Capital expenditures
    (770 )     (654 )     (681 )
Outsourcing contract & related software costs
    (6 )     (68 )     (110 )
                         
Free cash flow from operations
  $ 1,677     $ 1,411     $ 2,420  
                         
 
Cash Flows
The following is a discussion of our major operating, investing and financing activities for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2010, as classified on the consolidated statements of cash flows located in Part II, Item 8.
 
Operating Activities
2010 – Net cash provided by operating activities in 2010 increased $320 million as compared with 2009 and reflects improved cash collections from our customers and lower tax payments. In 2009, net cash provided by operating activities included $508 million taxes paid related to the sale of ASD. Pension plan contributions totaled $894 million in 2010, of which $830 million was voluntarily pre-funded.
 
In 2011, we expect to contribute the required minimum funding level of approximately $62 million to our pension plans and approximately $160 million to our other post-retirement benefit plans, and also expect to make additional voluntary pension contributions of approximately $500 million. We expect cash generated from operations for 2011 to be sufficient to service debt and contract obligations, finance capital expenditures, continue acquisition of shares under the share repurchase program, and continue paying dividends to our shareholders. Although 2011 cash from operations is expected to be sufficient to service these obligations, we may borrow under credit facilities to accommodate timing differences in cash flows. We have a committed $2 billion revolving credit facility that is currently undrawn and that can be accessed on a same-day basis. Additionally, we believe we could access capital markets for debt financing for longer-term funding, under current market conditions, if needed.
 
2009 – Net cash provided by operating activities in 2009 decreased $1.1 billion as compared with 2008, reflecting higher voluntary pension contributions and increased income taxes paid resulting from the sale of ASD. Pension plan contributions totaled $858 million in 2009, of which $800 million was voluntary pre-funded.
 
2008 – Net cash provided by operating activities in 2008 increased $321 million as compared with 2007, and reflects lower income tax payments and continued trade working capital reductions. Pension plan contributions totaled $320 million in 2008, of which $200 million was voluntarily pre-funded, and were comparable to 2007. Net cash provided by operating activities for 2008 included $113 million of federal and state income tax refunds and $23 million of interest income.
 
Investing Activities
2010 – Cash used in investing activities was $761 million in 2010 and reflects $770 million of capital expenditures, which includes $57 million of capitalized software costs. Capital expenditure commitments at December 31, 2010, were approximately $444 million, which are expected to be paid with cash on hand.
 
2009 – Cash provided by investing activities was $867 million in 2009. During 2009, we received $1.65 billion in proceeds from the sale of ASD (see Note 6 to the consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8), paid $68 million for outsourcing costs related to outsourcing services contracts, and paid $33 million to acquire Sonoma Photonics, Inc. and the assets from Swift Engineering’s Killer Bee Unmanned Air Systems product line


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(see Note 5 to the consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8). Capital expenditures in 2009 were $654 million and included $36 million of capitalized software costs.
 
2008 – Cash used in investing activities was $626 million in 2008. During 2008, we received $175 million in proceeds from the sale of the Electro-Optical Systems business, spent $92 million for the acquisition of 3001 International, Inc. (see Notes 5 and 6 to the consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8), paid $110 million for outsourcing costs related to outsourcing services contracts, and released $61 million of restricted cash related to the Gulf Opportunity Zone Industrial Development Revenue Bonds (see Note 14 to the consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8). We had $11 million in restricted cash as of December 31, 2008 related to the Xinetics Inc. purchase (see Note 5 to the consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8). Capital expenditures in 2008 were $681 million and included $23 million of capitalized software costs.
 
Financing Activities
2010 – Cash used in financing activities in 2010 was $1.3 billion, which was comparable to 2009. Financing activities in 2010 reflect $1.2 billion in debt payments, including the repurchase of $682 million of higher coupon debt, $231 million for fees and associated premiums paid to the tendering holders of these debt securities, and the repurchase of $178 million of Shipbuilding indebtedness in connection with our analysis of strategic alternatives for that business. These financing outflows were offset by $1.5 billion in net proceeds from new debt issuances. See Note 14 to the consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8. In addition, we repurchased $1.2 billion of our common shares outstanding in 2010.
 
2009 – Cash used in financing activities in 2009 was $1.2 billion compared with $2 billion in 2008 and reflects $843 million in net proceeds from new debt issuance in 2009. See Note 14 to the consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8.
 
2008 – Cash used in financing activities in 2008 was $2 billion compared to $1.5 billion in 2007. The $532 million increase is primarily due to $380 million more for share repurchases and $171 million lower proceeds from stock option exercises.
 
Share Repurchases – We repurchased 19.7 million, 23.1 million, and 21.4 million shares in 2010, 2009, and 2008, respectively. See Purchases of Equity Securities by Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers in Part II, Item 5 and Note 4 to the consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8 for a discussion concerning our common stock repurchases.
 
Credit Facility
We have a revolving credit agreement, which provides for a five-year revolving credit facility in an aggregate principal amount of $2 billion and a maturity date of August 10, 2012. The credit facility permits us to request additional lending commitments from the lenders under the agreement or other eligible lenders under certain circumstances, and thereby increase the aggregate principal amount of the lending commitments under the agreement by up to an additional $500 million. Our credit agreement contains a financial covenant relating to a maximum debt to capitalization ratio, and certain restrictions on additional asset liens, unless permitted by the agreement. As of December 31, 2010, we were in compliance with all covenants.
 
There were no borrowings during 2010 and 2009 under this facility. There was no balance outstanding under this facility at December 31, 2010, and 2009.
 
Other Sources and Uses of Capital
Additional Capital – We believe we can obtain additional capital, if necessary for long-term liquidity, from such sources as the public or private capital markets, the sale of assets, sale and leaseback of operating assets, and leasing rather than purchasing new assets. We have an effective shelf registration statement on file with the SEC.
 
We expect that cash on hand at the beginning of the year plus cash generated from operations supplemented by borrowings under credit facilities and in the capital markets, if needed, will be sufficient in 2011 to service debt and contract obligations, finance capital expenditures, pay federal, foreign, and state income taxes, fund required


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and voluntary pension and other post retirement benefit plan contributions, continue acquisition of shares under the share repurchase program, and continue paying dividends to shareholders. We will continue to provide the productive capacity to perform our existing contracts, prepare for future contracts, and conduct research and development in the pursuit of developing opportunities.
 
Financial Arrangements – In the ordinary course of business, we use standby letters of credit and guarantees issued by commercial banks and surety bonds issued by insurance companies principally to guarantee the performance on certain contracts and to support our self-insured workers’ compensation plans. At December 31, 2010, there were $303 million of unused stand-by letters of credit, $192 million of bank guarantees, and $446 million of surety bonds outstanding.
 
Contractual Obligations
The following table presents our contractual obligations as of December 31, 2010, and the estimated timing of future cash payments:
 
                                         
            2012 -
  2014 -
  2016 and
$ in millions   Total   2011    2013    2015   beyond
Long-term debt
  $ 4,808     $ 773     $ 9     $ 855     $ 3,171  
Interest payments on long-term debt
    3,035       241       430       416       1,948  
Operating leases
    1,514       367       499       330       318  
Purchase obligations(1)
    9,303       6,042       2,782       464       15  
Other long-term liabilities(2)
    1,488       321       347       239       581  
                                         
Total contractual obligations
  $ 20,148     $ 7,744     $ 4,067     $ 2,304     $ 6,033  
                                         
 
(1) A “purchase obligation” is defined as an agreement to purchase goods or services that is enforceable and legally binding on us and that specifies all significant terms, including: fixed or minimum quantities to be purchased; fixed, minimum, or variable price provisions; and the approximate timing of the transaction. These amounts are primarily comprised of open purchase order commitments to vendors and subcontractors pertaining to funded contracts.
 
(2) Other long-term liabilities primarily consist of total accrued workers’ compensation and environmental reserves, deferred compensation, and other miscellaneous liabilities, of which $109 million and $197 million of the environmental and workers’ compensation reserves, respectively, are recorded in other current liabilities. It excludes obligations for uncertain tax positions of $135 million, as the timing of the payments, if any, cannot be reasonably estimated.
 
The table above also excludes estimated minimum funding requirements and expected voluntary contributions for retiree benefit plans as set forth by ERISA in relation to the company’s pension and postretirement benefit obligations totaling approximately $5.5 billion over the next five years: $722 million in 2011, $494 million in 2012, $698 million in 2013, $696 million in 2014, and $719 million in 2015. The company also has payments due under plans that are not required to be funded in advance, but are funded on a pay-as-you-go basis. See Note 17 to the consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8.
 
Further details regarding long-term debt and operating leases can be found in Notes 14 and 16, respectively, to the consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8.
 
OTHER MATTERS
 
Accounting Standards Updates
The Financial Accounting Standards Board has issued new accounting standards which are not effective until after December 31, 2010. For further discussion of new accounting standards, see Note 2 to the consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8.


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Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
As of December 31, 2010, we had no significant off-balance sheet arrangements other than operating leases. For a description of our operating leases, see Note 16 to the consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8.
 
GLOSSARY OF PROGRAMS
 
Listed below are brief descriptions of the programs discussed in Segment Operating Results of this Form 10-K.
 
     
Program Name   Program Description
 
Advanced Extremely High Frequency (AEHF)   Provide the communication payload for the nation’s next generation military strategic and tactical satellite relay systems that will deliver survivable, protected communications to U.S. forces and selected allies worldwide.
     
African Contingency Operations Training Assistance (ACOTA)   Provide peacekeeping training to militaries in African nations via the Department of State. The program is designed to improve the ability of African governments to respond quickly to crises by providing selected militaries with the training and equipment required to execute humanitarian or peace support operations.
     
Airborne and Maritime/Fixed Stations Joint Tactical Radio Systems (AMF JTRS)   AMF JTRS will develop a communications capability that includes two software-defined, multifunction radio form factors for use by the U.S. Department of Defense and potential use by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Northrop Grumman has the responsibility for leading the Joint Tactical Radio (JTR) integrated product team and co-development of the JTR small airborne (JTR-SA) hardware and software. The company will also provide common JTR software for two JTR form factors, wideband power amplifiers, and the use of Northrop Grumman’s Advanced Communications Test Center in San Diego as the integration and test site for the JTR-SA radio, waveforms and ancillaries.
     
Armed Forces Health Longitudinal Technology Application (AHLTA)   An enterprise-wide medical and dental clinical information system that provides secure online access to health records.
     
B-2 Stealth Bomber   Maintain strategic, long-range multi-role bomber with war- fighting capability that combines long range, large payload, all-aspect stealth, and near-precision weapons in one aircraft.
     
B-52 Sustainment   B-52 ALQ-155, ALQ-122, ALT-16, ALT-32 and ALR-20 Power Management Systems are legacy electronic countermeasures systems protecting the B-52 over a wideband frequency range. The program provides design and test products to resolve obsolescence and maintainability issues using modern digital receiver/exciter designs.
     
Battlefield Airborne Communications Node (BACN)   Install the BACN system in three Bombardier BD-700 Global Express aircraft for immediate fielding and install the BACN system into two Global Hawk Block 20 unmanned aerial vehicles.
     
Broad Area Maritime Surveillance (BAMS) Unmanned Aircraft System   A maritime derivative of the Global Hawk that provides persistent maritime Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) data collection and dissemination capability to the Maritime Patrol and Reconnaissance Force.
     
Cobra Judy   The Cobra Judy Replacement program will replace the current U.S. Naval Ship (USNS) Observation Island and its aged AN/SPQ-11 Cobra Judy
     
     


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Program Name   Program Description
 
     
    ballistic missile tracking radar. Northrop Grumman will provide the S-band phased-array radar for use in technical data collection against ballistic missiles in flight.
     
Counter Narco-Terrorism Program Office (CNTPO)   Counter Narco Terrorism Program Office provides support to the U.S. Government, coalition partners, and host nations in Technology Development and Application Support; Training; Operations and Logistics Support; and Professional and Executive Support. The program provides equipment and services to research, develop, upgrade, install, fabricate, test, deploy, operate, train, maintain, and support new and existing federal Government platforms, systems, subsystems, items, and host- nation support initiatives.
     
C-20   Contractor Logistics Services (CLS) contract supporting the U.S. Air Force, Army, Navy and Marine Corps C-20 aircraft including depot maintenance, contractor operational and maintained base supply, flight line maintenance and field team support at multiple Main Operating Bases (MOBs), located in the United States and overseas.
     
DDG 51   Build Aegis guided missile destroyer, equipped for conducting anti-air, anti-submarine, anti-surface and strike operations.
     
DDG 1000   Design and build components of the first in a class of the U.S. Navy’s multi-mission surface combatants tailored for land attack and littoral dominance.
     
Deepwater Modernization   Multi-year program to modernize and replace the Coast Guard’s aging ships and aircraft, and improve command and control and logistics systems. The company has design and production responsibility for surface ships.
     
Distributed Common Ground System-Army (DCGS-A) Mobile Basic   DCGS-A Mobile Basic is the Army’s latest in a series of DCGS-A systems designed to access and ingest multiple data types from a wide variety of intelligence sensors, sources and databases. This new system will also deliver greater operational and logistical advantages over the currently-fielded DCGS-A Version 3 and the nine ISR programs it replaces.
     
E-2 Hawkeye   The U.S. Navy’s airborne battle management command and control mission system platform providing airborne early warning detection, identification, tracking, targeting, and communication capabilities. The company is developing the next generation capability including radar, mission computer, vehicle, and other system enhancements, to support the U.S Naval Battle Groups and Joint Forces, called the E-2D. The U.S, Navy approved Milestone C for Low Rate Initial Production.
     
EA-6B   The EA-6B (Prowler) primary mission is to jam enemy radar and communications, thereby preventing them from directing hostile surface-to-air missiles at assets the Prowler protects. When equipped with the improved ALQ-218 receiver and the next generation ICAP III ( Increased Capability) Airborne Electronic Attack (AEA) suite the Prowler is able to provide rapid detection, precise classification, and highly accurate geolocation of electronic emissions and counter modern, frequency-hopping radars. A derivative/variant of the EA-6B ICAP III mission system is also being incorporated into the F/A- 18 platform and designated the EA-18G.
     
     

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Program Name   Program Description
 
     
EA-18G   The EA-18G is the replacement platform for the EA6B Prowler, which is currently the armed services’ only offensive tactical radar jamming aircraft. The Increased Capability (ICAP) III mission system capability, developed for the EA-6B Prowler, will be in incorporated into an F/A-18 platform (designated the EA-18G).
     
F/A-18   Produce the center and aft fuselage sections, twin vertical stabilizers, and integrate all associated subsystems for the F/A-18 Hornet strike fighters.
     
F-35 Lightning II   Design, integration, and/or development of the center fuselage and weapons bay, communications, navigations, identification subsystem, systems engineering, and mission systems software as well as provide ground and flight test support, modeling, simulation activities, and training courseware.
     
Flats Sequencing System (FSS)/Postal Automation   Build systems for the U.S. Postal Service designed to further automate the flat mail stream, which includes large envelopes, catalogs and magazines.
     
Force XXI Battle Brigade and Below (FBCB2)   Install in Army vehicles a system of computer hardware and software that forms a wireless, tactical Internet for near-real- time situational awareness and command and control on the battlefield.
     
Gerald R. Ford-class aircraft carriers   Design and construction for the new class of Aircraft Carriers.
     
Global Hawk High-Altitude Long-Endurance (HALE) Systems   Provide the Global Hawk HALE unmanned aerial system for use in the global war on terror and has a central role in Intelligence, Reconnaissance, and Surveillance supporting operations in Afghanistan and Iraq.
     
Global Linguist Solutions (GLS)   Provide interpretation, translation and linguist services in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom.
     
Ground/Air Task Oriented Radar (G/ATOR)   A development program to provide the next generation ground based multi-mission radar for the USMC. Provides Short Range Air Defense, Air Defense Surveillance, Ground Weapon Location and Air Traffic Control. Replaces five existing USMC single- mission radars.
     
Guardrail Common Sensor System IDIQ (GRCS-I)   Sole source IDIQ contract which will encompass efforts for the upgrade and modernization of the current field Guardrail systems.
     
Hunter Contractor Logistics Support (CLS)   Operate, maintain, train and sustain the multi-mission Hunter Unmanned Aerial System in addition to deploying Hunter support teams.
     
I-Kits   Supports Full Rate Production of FBCB2 Version 4 I-KITS (installation kits) for the U.S. Army and Australian ground platform types. Services include Program Operations, Supply Chain Management, Procurement, Stores, Part Kitting and Engineering.
     
Inertial Navigation Programs   Consists of a wide variety of products across land, sea and space that address the customers’ needs for precise knowledge of position, velocity, attitude, and heading. These applications include platforms, such as the F-16, satellites and ground vehicles as well as for sensors such as radar, MP-RTIP, and
     
     

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Program Name   Program Description
 
     
    EO/IR pods. Many inertial applications require integration with GPS to provide a very high level of precision and long term stability.
     
Integrated Battle Command System (IBCS)   The Integrated Air & Missile Defense, Battle Command System (IBCS) component concept provides for a common battle management, command, control, communications, computers and intelligence capability with integrated fire control hardware/software product design, integration, and development that supports initial operational capability of the Joint Integrated Air and Missile Defense Increment 2.
     
Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM)   Maintain readiness of the nation’s ICBM weapon system.
     
Joint Base Operations Support (JBOSC)   Provides all infrastructure support needed for launch and base operations at the NASA Spaceport.
     
Joint National Integration Center Research and Development Contract (JRDC)   Support the development and application of modeling and simulation, wargaming, test and analytic tools for air and missile defense.
     
Joint Warfighting Center Support (JWFC)   Provide non-personal general and technical support to the USJFCOM Joint Force Trainer / Joint Warfighting Center to ensure the successful worldwide execution of the Joint Training and Transformation missions.
     
KC-10   Contractor Logistics Services (CLS) contract supporting the U.S. Air Force KC-10 tanker fleet including depot maintenance, supply chain management, maintenance and management at locations in the United States and worldwide.
     
Kinetic Energy Interceptor (KEI)   Develop mobile missile-defense system with the unique capability to destroy a hostile missile during its boost, ascent or midcourse phase of flight. This program was terminated for the U.S. government’s convenience in 2009.
     
Large Aircraft Infrared Countermeasures (LAIRCM)   Infrared countermeasures systems for C-17 and C-130 aircraft. The IDIQ contract will further allow for the purchase of LAIRCM hardware for foreign military sales and other government agencies.
     
LHA   Amphibious assault ships that will provide forward presence and power projection as an integral part of joint, interagency, and multinational maritime expeditionary forces.
     
LHD   The multipurpose amphibious assault ship LHD is the centerpiece of an Expeditionary Strike Group (ESG). In wartime, these ships deploy very large numbers of troops and equipment to assault enemy-held beaches. Like LPD, only larger, in times of peace, these ships have ample space for non-combatant evacuations and other humanitarian missions. The program of record is 8 ships of which Makin Island (LHD 8) is the last.
     
LITENING targeting pod system (LITENING)   A self-contained, multi-sensor weapon aiming system that enables fighter pilots to detect, acquire, auto-track and identify targets for highly accurate delivery of both conventional and precision-guided weapons.
     
     

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Program Name   Program Description
 
     
Long Endurance Multi-Intelligence Vehicle (LEMV)   Contract awarded by the U.S. Army Space and Missile Defense Command for the development, fabrication, integration, certification and performance of one LEMV system. It is a state- of-the-art, lighter-than-air airship designed to provide ground troops with persistent surveillance. Development and demonstration of the first airship is scheduled to be completed December 2011. The contract also includes options for two additional airships and in-country support.
     
LPD   The LPD 17 San Antonio-class is the newest addition to the U.S. Navy’s 21st Century amphibious assault force. The 684-foot-long, 105-foot-wide ships have a crew of 360 and are used to transport and land 700 to 800 Marines, their equipment, and supplies by embarked air cushion or conventional landing craft and assault vehicles, augmented by helicopters or other rotary wing aircraft. The ships will support amphibious assault, special operations, or expeditionary warfare & humanitarian missions.
     
MESA Radar Product   The Multi-role Electronically Scanned Array (MESA) Radar product line provides an Advanced AESA Radar for AEW&C mission on a Boeing 737 Aircraft. This product is currently under contract with three international customers.
     
National Level Exercise 2009 (NLE)   Provide program management and the necessary technical expertise to assist the FEMA National Exercise Division with planning, conducting and evaluating the FY09 Tier 1 National Level Exercise (NLE 09).
     
National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS)   Design, develop, integrate, test, and operate an integrated system comprised of two satellites with mission sensors and associated ground elements for providing global and regional weather and environmental data. This program was restructured in 2010.
     
Navstar Global Positioning System Operational Control Segment (GPS OCX)   Navstar Global Positioning System Operational Control Segment (GPS OCX) Operational control system for existing and future GPS constellation. Includes all satellite C2, mission planning, constellation management, external interfaces, monitoring stations, and ground antennas. Phase A effort includes effort to accomplish a System Requirements Review (SRR), System Design Review (SDR), and development of a Mission Capabilities Engineering Model (MCEM) prototype.
     
Navy Unmanned Combat Air System Operational Assessment (N-UCAS)   Navy development/demonstration contract that will design, build and test two demonstration vehicles that will conduct a carrier demonstration.
     
Nevada Test Site (NTS)   Manage and operate the Nevada Test Site facility and provide infrastructure support, including management of the nuclear explosives safety team, support of hazardous chemical spill testing, emergency response training and conventional weapons testing.
     
New York City Wireless Network (NYCWiN)   Provide New York City’s broadband public- safety wireless network.
     
     

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Program Name   Program Description
 
     
Saudi Arabian National Guard Modernization and Training (SANG)   Provide military training, logistics and support services to modernize the Saudi Arabian National Guard’s capabilities to unilaterally execute and sustain military operations.
     
Space Based Infrared System (SBIRS)   Space-based surveillance systems for missile warning, missile defense, battlespace characterization and technical intelligence. SBIRS will meet United Stated infrared space surveillance needs through the next 2-3 decades.
     
Trailer Mounted Support System (TMSS)   Trailer Mounted Support System is a key part of the Army’s SICPS Program providing workspace, power distribution, lighting, environmental conditioning (heating and cooling) tables and a common grounding system for commanders and staff at all echelons.
     
Transformational Satellite Communication System (TSAT) – Risk Reduction and System Definition (RR&SD)   Design, develop, brassboard and demonstrate key technologies to reduce risk in the TSAT space element and perform additional risk mitigation activities. This program was terminated in 2009.
     
USS Carl Vinson   Refueling and complex overhaul of the nuclear-powered aircraft carrier USS Carl Vinson (CVN 70).
     
USS George H. W. Bush   The 10th and final Nimitz-class aircraft carrier that will incorporate many new design features, commissioned in early 2009 (CVN 77).
     
USS Theodore Roosevelt   Refueling and complex overhaul of the nuclear-powered aircraft carrier USS Theodore Roosevelt (CVN 71).
     
USS Toledo Depot Modernization Period (DMP)   Provide routine dry dock work, tank blasting and coating, hull preservation, propulsion and ship system repairs and limited enhancements to various hull, mechanical and electrical systems for the USS Toledo.
     
Vehicular Intercommunications Systems (VIS)   Provide clear and noise-free communications between crew members inside combat vehicles and externally over as many as six combat net radios for the U.S. Army. The active noise- reduction features of VIS provide significant improvement in speech intelligibility, hearing protection, and vehicle crew performance.
     
Virginia-class Submarines   Construct the newest attack submarine in conjunction with General Dynamics Electric Boat.
     
Virginia IT Outsource (VITA)   Provide high-level IT consulting, IT infrastructure and services to Virginia state and local agencies including data center, help desk, desktop, network, applications and cross- functional services.

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NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION
 
Item 7A.   Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk
 
Interest Rates – We are exposed to market risk, primarily related to interest rates and foreign currency exchange rates. Financial instruments subject to interest rate risk include variable-rate short-term borrowings under the credit agreement and short-term investments. At December 31, 2010, substantially all outstanding borrowings were fixed-rate long-term debt obligations of which a significant portion are not callable until maturity. We have a modest exposure to interest rate risk resulting from an interest swap agreement. Our sensitivity to a 1 percent change in interest rates is tied to our $2 billion credit agreement, which had no balance outstanding at December 31, 2010, or 2009, and to our interest rate swap agreement. See Note 14 to the consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8.
 
Derivatives – We do not hold or issue derivative financial instruments for trading purposes. We may enter into interest rate swap agreements to manage our exposure to interest rate fluctuations. At December 31, 2010, and 2009, we had one interest rate swap agreement in effect. See Notes 1 and 13 to the consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8.
 
Foreign Currency – We enter into foreign currency forward contracts to manage foreign currency exchange rate risk related to receipts from customers and payments to suppliers denominated in foreign currencies. At December 31, 2010, and 2009, the amount of foreign currency forward contracts outstanding was not material. We do not consider the market risk exposure relating to foreign currency exchange to be material to the consolidated financial statements. See Notes 1 and 13 to the consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8.


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NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION
 
Item 8.  Financial Statements and Supplementary Data
 
REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM
 
To the Board of Directors and Shareholders of
Northrop Grumman Corporation
Los Angeles, California
 
We have audited the accompanying consolidated statements of financial position of Northrop Grumman Corporation and subsidiaries (the “Company”) as of December 31, 2010 and 2009, and the related consolidated statements of operations, changes in shareholders’ equity, and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2010. These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the financial statements based on our audits.
 
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States). Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement. An audit includes examining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. An audit also includes assessing the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall financial statement presentation. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.
 
In our opinion, such consolidated financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of Northrop Grumman Corporation and subsidiaries at December 31, 2010 and 2009, and the results of their operations and their cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2010, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.
 
We have also audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States), the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2010, based on the criteria established in Internal Control – Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission and our report dated February 8, 2011 expressed an unqualified opinion on the Company’s internal control over financial reporting.
 
/s/   Deloitte & Touche LLP
Los Angeles, California
February 8, 2011


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NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION
 
 
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
 
                         
    Year Ended December 31
$ in millions, except per share amounts   2010   2009   2008
Sales and Service Revenues
                       
Product sales
  $ 21,776     $ 20,914     $ 19,634  
Service revenues
    12,981       12,841       12,681  
                         
Total sales and service revenues
    34,757       33,755       32,315  
                         
Cost of Sales and Service Revenues
                       
Cost of product sales
    16,820       16,591       15,490  
Cost of service revenues
    11,789       11,539       10,885  
General and administrative expenses
    3,078       3,142       3,143  
Goodwill impairment
                    3,060  
                         
Operating income (loss)
    3,070       2,483       (263 )
Other (expense) income
                       
Interest expense
    (281 )     (281 )     (295 )
Charge on debt redemption
    (231 )                
Other, net
    37       64       38  
                         
Earnings (loss) from continuing operations before income taxes
    2,595       2,266       (520 )
Federal and foreign income taxes
    557       693       859  
                         
Earnings (loss) from continuing operations
    2,038       1,573       (1,379 )
Earnings from discontinued operations, net of tax
    15       113       117  
                         
Net earnings (loss)
  $ 2,053     $ 1,686     $ (1,262 )
                         
Basic Earnings (Loss) Per Share
                       
Continuing operations
  $ 6.86     $ 4.93     $ (4.12 )
Discontinued operations
    .05       .35       .35  
                         
Basic earnings (loss) per share
  $ 6.91     $ 5.28     $ (3.77 )
                         
Weighted-average common shares outstanding, in millions
    296.9       319.2       334.5  
                         
Diluted Earnings (Loss) Per Share
                       
Continuing operations
  $ 6.77     $ 4.87     $ (4.12 )
Discontinued operations
    .05       .34       .35  
                         
Diluted earnings (loss) per share
  $ 6.82     $ 5.21     $ (3.77 )
                         
Weighted-average diluted shares outstanding, in millions
    301.1       323.3       334.5  
                         
Net earnings (loss) from above
  $ 2,053     $ 1,686     $ (1,262 )
Other comprehensive income (loss)
                       
Change in cumulative translation adjustment
    (41 )     31       (24 )
Change in unrealized gain (loss) on marketable securities and cash flow hedges, net of tax benefit (expense) of $0 in 2010, $(23) in 2009, and $22 in 2008
    1       36       (35 )
Change in unamortized benefit plan costs, net of tax (expense) benefit of $(183) in 2010, $(374) in 2009 and $1,888 in 2008
    297       561       (2,884 )
                         
Other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax
    257       628       (2,943 )
                         
Comprehensive income (loss)
  $ 2,310     $ 2,314     $ (4,205 )
                         
 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.


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NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION
 
 
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF FINANCIAL POSITION
 
                 
    December 31   December 31
$ in millions   2010   2009
Assets
               
Current Assets
               
Cash and cash equivalents
  $ 3,701     $ 3,275  
Accounts receivable, net of progress payments
    4,057       3,394  
Inventoried costs, net of progress payments
    1,185       1,170  
Deferred tax assets
    710       524  
Prepaid expenses and other current assets
    251       272  
 
Total current assets
    9,904       8,635  
 
Property, Plant, and Equipment
               
Land and land improvements
    666       649  
Buildings and improvements
    2,658       2,422  
Machinery and other equipment
    5,134       4,759  
Capitalized software costs
    636       624  
Leasehold improvements
    670       630  
 
      9,764       9,084  
Accumulated depreciation
    (4,722 )     (4,216 )
 
Property, plant, and equipment, net
    5,042       4,868  
 
Other Assets
               
Goodwill
    13,517       13,517  
Other purchased intangibles, net of accumulated amortization of $1,965 in 2010 and $1,871 in 2009
    779       873  
Pension and post-retirement plan assets
    450       300  
Long-term deferred tax assets
    612       1,010  
Miscellaneous other assets
    1,117       1,049  
 
Total other assets
    16,475       16,749  
 
Total assets
  $ 31,421     $ 30,252  
 
                 
Liabilities and Shareholders’ Equity
               
Current Liabilities
               
Notes payable to banks
  $ 10     $ 12  
Current portion of long-term debt
    774       91  
Trade accounts payable
    1,846       1,921  
Accrued employees’ compensation
    1,349       1,281  
Advance payments and billings in excess of costs incurred
    2,076       1,954  
Other current liabilities
    2,331       1,726  
 
Total current liabilities
    8,386       6,985  
 
Long-term debt, net of current portion
    4,045       4,191  
Pension and post-retirement plan liabilities
    4,116       4,874  
Other long-term liabilities
    1,317       1,515  
 
Total liabilities
    17,864       17,565  
 
                 
Commitments and Contingencies (Note 16)
               
                 
Shareholders’ Equity
               
Common stock, $1 par value; 800,000,000 shares authorized; issued and outstanding: 2010—290,956,752; 2009—306,865,201
    291       307  
Paid-in capital
    7,778       8,657  
Retained earnings
    8,245       6,737  
Accumulated other comprehensive loss
    (2,757 )     (3,014 )
 
Total shareholders’ equity
    13,557       12,687  
 
Total liabilities and shareholders’ equity
  $ 31,421     $ 30,252  
 
 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.


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CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
 
                         
    Year Ended December 31
$ in millions   2010   2009   2008
Operating Activities
                       
Sources of Cash—Continuing Operations
                       
Cash received from customers
                       
Progress payments
  $ 6,401     $ 8,561     $ 6,219  
Collections on billings
    28,079       25,099       26,938  
Other cash receipts
    61       62       88  
 
Total sources of cash—continuing operations
    34,541       33,722       33,245  
 
Uses of Cash—Continuing Operations
                       
Cash paid to suppliers and employees
    (29,775 )     (29,250 )     (28,817 )
Pension contributions
    (894 )     (858 )     (320 )
Interest paid, net of interest received
    (280 )     (269 )     (287 )
Income taxes paid, net of refunds received
    (1,071 )     (774 )     (712 )
Income taxes paid on sale of businesses
            (508 )     (7 )
Excess tax benefits from stock-based compensation
    (22 )     (2 )     (48 )
Other cash payments
    (46 )     (30 )     (16 )
 
Total uses of cash—continuing operations
    (32,088 )     (31,691 )     (30,207 )
 
Cash provided by continuing operations
    2,453       2,031       3,038  
Cash provided by discontinued operations
            102       173  
 
Net cash provided by operating activities
    2,453       2,133       3,211  
 
Investing Activities
                       
Proceeds from sale of businesses, net of cash divested
    14       1,650       175  
Payments for businesses purchased
            (33 )     (92 )
Additions to property, plant, and equipment
    (770 )     (654 )     (681 )
Payments for outsourcing contract costs and related software costs
    (6 )     (68 )     (110 )
Decrease (increase) in restricted cash
    5       (28 )     61  
Other investing activities, net
    (4 )             21  
 
Net cash (used in) provided by investing activities
    (761 )     867       (626 )
 
Financing Activities
                       
Net borrowings under lines of credit
    (2 )     (12 )     (2 )
Proceeds from issuance of long-term debt
    1,484       843          
Payments of long-term debt
    (1,190 )     (474 )     (113 )
Proceeds from exercises of stock options and issuances of common stock
    142       51       103  
Dividends paid
    (545 )     (539 )     (525 )
Excess tax benefits from stock-based compensation
    22       2       48  
Common stock repurchases
    (1,177 )     (1,100 )     (1,555 )
 
Net cash used in financing activities
    (1,266 )     (1,229 )     (2,044 )
 
Increase in cash and cash equivalents
    426       1,771       541  
Cash and cash equivalents, beginning of year
    3,275       1,504       963  
 
Cash and cash equivalents, end of year
  $ 3,701     $ 3,275     $ 1,504  
 
 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.


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CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
 
                         
    Year Ended December 31
$ in millions   2010   2009   2008
Reconciliation of Net Earnings (Loss) to Net Cash Provided by Operating Activities
                       
Net earnings (loss)
  $ 2,053     $ 1,686     $ (1,262 )
Net (earnings) from discontinued operations
            (95 )     (91 )
Adjustments to reconcile to net cash provided by operating activities
                       
Depreciation
    606       585       567  
Amortization of assets
    132       151       189  
Impairment of goodwill
                    3,060  
Stock-based compensation
    136       105       118  
Excess tax benefits from stock-based compensation
    (22 )     (2 )     (48 )
Pre-tax gain on sale of businesses
            (446 )     (58 )
Charge on debt redemption
    231                  
(Increase) decrease in
                       
Accounts receivable, net
    (664 )     297       (133 )
Inventoried costs, net
    (61 )     (246 )     (2 )
Prepaid expenses and other current assets
    38       (6 )     (20 )
Increase (decrease) in
                       
Accounts payable and accruals
    330       (151 )     383  
Deferred income taxes
    60       112       167  
Income taxes payable
    (26 )     65       241  
Retiree benefits
    (326 )     (20 )     (167 )
Other non-cash transactions, net
    (34 )     (4 )     94  
 
Cash provided by continuing operations
    2,453       2,031       3,038  
Cash provided by discontinued operations
            102       173  
 
Net cash provided by operating activities
  $ 2,453     $ 2,133     $ 3,211  
 
Non-Cash Investing and Financing Activities
                       
Sale of businesses
                       
Liabilities assumed by purchaser
          $ 167     $ 18  
 
Purchase of businesses
                       
Liabilities assumed by the company
                  $ 20  
 
Mandatorily redeemable convertible preferred stock converted or redeemed into common stock
                  $ 350  
 
Capital expenditures accrued in accounts payable
  $ 85     $ 104     $ 84  
 
 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.


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CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CHANGES IN SHAREHOLDERS’ EQUITY
 
                         
    Year Ended December 31
$ in millions, except per share amounts   2010   2009   2008
Common Stock
                       
At beginning of year
  $ 307     $ 327     $ 338  
Common stock repurchased
    (20 )     (23 )     (21 )
Conversion of preferred stock
                    6  
Employee stock awards and options
    4       3       4  
 
At end of year
    291       307       327  
 
Paid-in Capital
                       
At beginning of year
    8,657       9,645       10,661  
Common stock repurchased
    (1,143 )     (1,098 )     (1,534 )
Conversion of preferred stock
                    344  
Employee stock awards and options
    264       110       174  
 
At end of year
    7,778       8,657       9,645  
 
Retained Earnings
                       
At beginning of year
    6,737       5,590       7,387  
Net earnings (loss)
    2,053       1,686       (1,262 )
Dividends declared
    (545 )     (539 )     (532 )
Other
                    (3 )
 
At end of year
    8,245       6,737       5,590  
 
Accumulated Other Comprehensive Loss
                       
At beginning of year
    (3,014 )     (3,642 )     (699 )
Other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax
    257       628       (2,943 )
 
At end of year
    (2,757 )     (3,014 )     (3,642 )
 
Total shareholders’ equity
  $ 13,557     $ 12,687     $ 11,920  
 
Cash dividends declared per share
  $ 1.84     $ 1.69     $ 1.57  
 
 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.


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NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
 
1.   SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
 
Nature of Operations – Northrop Grumman Corporation and its subsidiaries (Northrop Grumman or the company) provide technologically advanced, innovative products, services, and solutions in aerospace, electronics, information systems, shipbuilding and technical services. In January 2009, the company streamlined its organizational structure by reducing the number of operating segments from seven to five. The five segments are Aerospace Systems, Electronic Systems, Information Systems, Shipbuilding and Technical Services. Product sales are predominantly generated in the Aerospace Systems, Electronic Systems and Shipbuilding segments, while the majority of the company’s service revenues are generated by the Information Systems and Technical Services segments.
 
Aerospace Systems is a leading developer, integrator, producer and supporter of manned and unmanned aircraft, spacecraft, high-energy laser systems, microelectronics and other systems and subsystems critical to maintaining the nation’s security and leadership in technology. These systems are used, primarily by U.S. Government customers, in many different mission areas including intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance; communications; battle management; strike operations; electronic warfare; missile defense; earth observation; space science; and space exploration.
 
Electronic Systems is a leader in the design, development, manufacture, and support of solutions for sensing, understanding, anticipating, and controlling the environment for our global military, civil, and commercial customers and their operations. The segment provides a variety of defense electronics and systems, airborne fire control radars, situational awareness systems, early warning systems, airspace management systems, navigation systems, communications systems, marine systems, space systems, and logistics services.
 
Information Systems is a leading global provider of advanced solutions for Department of Defense (DoD), national intelligence, federal civilian, state and local agencies, and commercial customers. Products and services are focused on the fields of command, control, communications, computers and intelligence; air and missile defense; airborne reconnaissance; intelligence processing; decision support systems; cybersecurity; information technology; and systems engineering and integration.
 
Shipbuilding is the nation’s sole industrial designer, builder and refueler of nuclear-powered aircraft carriers, the sole supplier and builder of amphibious assault and expeditionary warfare ships to the U.S. Navy, the sole builder of National Security Cutters for the U.S. Coast Guard, one of only two companies currently designing and building nuclear-powered submarines for the U.S. Navy and one of only two companies that builds the U.S. Navy’s current fleet of DDG-51 Arleigh Burke-class destroyers. Shipbuilding is also a full-service systems provider for the design, engineering, construction and life cycle support of major programs for surface ships and a provider of fleet support and maintenance services for the U.S. Navy.
 
Technical Services is a provider of logistics, infrastructure, and sustainment support, while also providing a wide array of technical services, including training and simulation.
 
As prime contractor, principal subcontractor, partner, or preferred supplier, Northrop Grumman participates in many high-priority defense and non-defense technology programs in the U.S. and abroad. Northrop Grumman conducts most of its business with the U.S. Government, principally the DoD. The company is therefore affected by, among other things, the federal budget process. The company also conducts business with local, state, and foreign governments and generates domestic and international commercial sales.
 
Financial Statement Reclassification – Certain amounts in the prior year financial statements and related notes have been reclassified to conform to the current presentation of the businesses described in Note 8.
 
Principles of Consolidation – The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Northrop Grumman and its subsidiaries. All intercompany accounts, transactions, and profits among Northrop Grumman and its subsidiaries are eliminated in consolidation.


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Accounting Estimates – The company’s financial statements are prepared in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (GAAP). The preparation thereof requires management to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingencies at the date of the financial statements as well as the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Estimates have been prepared on the basis of the most current and best available information and actual results could differ materially from those estimates.
 
Revenue Recognition – The majority of the company’s business is derived from long-term contracts for production of goods, and services provided to the federal government. In accounting for these contracts, the company extensively utilizes the cost-to-cost and the units-of-delivery measures of the percentage-of-completion method of accounting. Sales under cost-reimbursement contracts and construction-type contracts that provide for delivery at a low volume per year or a small number of units after a lengthy period of time over which a significant amount of costs have been incurred are accounted for using the cost-to-cost method. Under this method, sales, including estimated earned fees or profits, are recorded as costs are incurred. For most contracts, sales are calculated based on the percentage that total costs incurred bear to total estimated costs at completion. For certain contracts with large up-front purchases of material, primarily in the Shipbuilding segment, sales are calculated based on the percentage that direct labor costs incurred bear to total estimated direct labor costs. Sales under construction-type contracts that provide for delivery at a high volume per year are accounted for using the units-of-delivery method. Under this method, sales are recognized as deliveries are made to the customer generally using unit sales values for delivered units in accordance with the contract terms. The company estimates profit as the difference between total estimated revenue and total estimated cost of a contract and recognizes that profit over the life of the contract based on deliveries or as computed on the basis of the estimated final average unit costs plus profit. The company classifies contract revenues as product sales or service revenues depending upon the predominant attributes of the relevant underlying contracts.
 
Certain contracts contain provisions for price redetermination or for cost and/or performance incentives. Such redetermined amounts or incentives are included in sales when the amounts can reasonably be determined and estimated. Amounts representing contract change orders, claims, requests for equitable adjustment, or limitations in funding are included in sales only when they can be reliably estimated and realization is probable. In the period in which it is determined that a loss will result from the performance of a contract, the entire amount of the estimated ultimate loss is charged against income. Loss provisions are first offset against costs that are included in unbilled accounts receivable or inventoried costs, with any remaining amount reflected in liabilities. Changes in estimates of contract sales, costs, and profits are recognized using the cumulative catch-up method of accounting. This method recognizes in the current period the cumulative effect of the changes on current and prior periods. Hence, the effect of the changes on future periods of contract performance is recognized as if the revised estimate had been used since contract inception. A significant change in an estimate on one or more contracts could have a material effect on the company’s consolidated financial position or results of operations, and where such changes occur, separate disclosure is made of the nature, underlying conditions and financial impact of the change.
 
Revenue under contracts to provide services to non-federal government customers are generally recognized when services are performed. Service contracts include operations and maintenance contracts, and outsourcing-type arrangements, primarily in the Technical Services and Information Systems segments. Revenue under such contracts is generally recognized on a straight-line basis over the period of contract performance, unless evidence suggests that the revenue is earned or the obligations are fulfilled in a different pattern. Costs incurred under these service contracts are expensed as incurred, except that direct and incremental set-up costs are capitalized and amortized over the life of the agreement (see Outsourcing Contract Costs below). Operating profit related to such service contracts may fluctuate from period to period, particularly in the earlier phases of the contract. For contracts that include more than one type of product or service, revenue recognition includes the proper identification of separate units of accounting and the allocation of revenue across all elements based on relative fair values.


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General and Administrative Expenses – In accordance with industry practice and the regulations that govern the cost accounting requirements for government contracts, most general corporate expenses incurred at both the segment and corporate locations are considered allowable and allocable costs on government contracts. For most components of the company, these costs are allocated to contracts in progress on a systematic basis and contract performance factors include this cost component as an element of cost. General and administrative expenses primarily relate to segment operations.
 
Research and Development – Company-sponsored research and development activities primarily include independent research and development (IR&D) efforts related to government programs. IR&D expenses are included in general and administrative expenses and are generally allocated to government contracts. Company-sponsored IR&D expenses totaled $603 million, $610 million, and $564 million, in 2010, 2009, and 2008, respectively. Expenses for research and development sponsored by the customer are charged directly to the related contracts.
 
Restructuring Costs – In accordance with the regulations that govern the cost accounting requirements for government contracts, certain costs incurred for consolidation or restructuring activities that demonstrate savings in excess of the cost to implement those actions can be deferred and amortized as allowable and allocable costs on government contracts. Such deferred costs are not expected to have a material to the company’s consolidated financial position or results of operations (see Note 7).
 
Product Warranty Costs – The company provides certain product warranties that require repair or replacement of non-conforming items for a specified period of time often subject to a specified monetary coverage limit. Substantially all of the company’s product warranties are provided under government contracts, the costs of which are immaterial and are accounted for using the percentage-of- completion method of accounting. Accrued product warranty costs for the remainder of our products (which are almost entirely commercial products) are not material.
 
Environmental Costs – Environmental liabilities are accrued when the company determines such amounts are reasonably estimable, and management has determined that it is probable that a liability has been incurred. When only a range of amounts is established and no amount within the range is more probable than another, the minimum amount in the range is recorded. Environmental liabilities are recorded on an undiscounted basis. At sites involving multiple parties, the company accrues environmental liabilities based upon its expected share of liability, taking into account the financial viability of other jointly liable parties. Environmental expenditures are expensed or capitalized as appropriate. Capitalized expenditures relate to long-lived improvements in currently operating facilities. The company does not anticipate and record insurance recoveries before collection is probable. At December 31, 2010, and 2009, the company did not have any accrued receivables related to insurance reimbursements.
 
Fair Value of Financial Instruments – The company utilizes fair value measurement guidance prescribed by GAAP to value its financial instruments. The guidance includes a definition of fair value, prescribes methods for measuring fair value, establishes a fair value hierarchy based on the inputs used to measure fair value and expands disclosures about the use of fair value measurements.
 
The valuation techniques utilized are based upon observable and unobservable inputs. Observable inputs reflect market data obtained from independent sources, while unobservable inputs reflect internal market assumptions. These two types of inputs create the following fair value hierarchy:
 
Level 1 – Quoted prices for identical instruments in active markets.
 
Level 2 – Quoted prices for similar instruments in active markets; quoted prices for identical or similar instruments in markets that are not active; and model-derived valuations whose inputs are observable or whose significant value drivers are observable.
 
Level 3 – Significant inputs to the valuation model are unobservable.


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Derivative Financial Instruments – Derivative financial instruments are recognized as assets or liabilities in the financial statements and measured at fair value. Changes in the fair value of derivative financial instruments that qualify and are designated as fair value hedges are required to be recorded in income from continuing operations, while the effective portion of the changes in the fair value of derivative financial instruments that qualify and are designated as cash flow hedges are recorded in other comprehensive income. The company may use derivative financial instruments to manage its exposure to interest rate and foreign currency exchange risks and to balance its fixed and variable rate long-term debt portfolio. The company does not use derivative financial instruments for trading or speculative purposes, nor does it use leveraged financial instruments. Credit risk related to derivative financial instruments is considered minimal and is managed by requiring high credit standards for counterparties and through periodic settlements of positions.
 
For derivative financial instruments not designated as hedging instruments, gains or losses resulting from changes in the fair value are reported in Other, net in the consolidated statements of operations.
 
Income Taxes – Provisions for federal, foreign, state, and local income taxes are calculated on reported financial statement pre-tax income based on current tax law and include the cumulative effect of any changes in tax rates from those used previously in determining deferred tax assets and liabilities. Such provisions differ from the amounts currently payable because certain items of income and expense are recognized in different time periods for financial reporting purposes than for income tax purposes. If a tax position does not meet the minimum statutory threshold to avoid payment of penalties, the company recognizes an expense for the amount of the penalty in the period the tax position is claimed in the tax return of the company. The company recognizes interest accrued related to unrecognized tax benefits in income tax expense. Penalties, if probable and reasonably estimable, are recognized as a component of income tax expense. State and local income and franchise tax provisions are allocable to contracts in process and, accordingly, are included in general and administrative expenses.
 
The company makes a comprehensive review of its portfolio of uncertain tax positions regularly. In this regard, an uncertain tax position represents the company’s expected treatment of a tax position taken in a filed tax return, or planned to be taken in a future tax return or claim, that has not been reflected in measuring income tax expense for financial reporting purposes. Until these positions are sustained by the taxing authorities, the company does not recognize the tax benefits resulting from such positions and reports the tax effects as a liability for uncertain tax positions in its consolidated statements of financial position.
 
Cash and cash equivalents – For cash and cash equivalents, the carrying amounts approximate fair value due to the short-term nature of these items. Cash and cash equivalents include short-term interest-earning debt instruments that mature in three months or less from the date purchased.
 
Marketable Securities – At December 31, 2010, and 2009, substantially all of the company’s investments in marketable securities were classified as available-for-sale or trading. For available-for-sale securities, any unrealized gains and losses are reported as a separate component of shareholders’ equity. Unrealized gains and losses on trading securities are included in Other, net in the consolidated statements of operations. Investments in marketable securities are recorded at fair value.
 
Accounts Receivable – Accounts receivable include amounts billed and currently due from customers, amounts currently due but unbilled (primarily related to contracts accounted for under the cost-to-cost measure of the percentage-of-completion method of accounting), certain estimated contract change amounts, claims or requests for equitable adjustment in negotiation that are probable of recovery, and amounts retained by the customer pending contract completion.
 
Inventoried Costs – Inventoried costs primarily relate to work in process under fixed-price, units-of-delivery and fixed-priced-incentive contracts using labor dollars as the basis of the percentage-of-completion calculation. These costs represent accumulated contract costs less the portion of such costs allocated to delivered items. Accumulated contract costs include direct production costs, factory and engineering overhead, production


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tooling costs, and, for government contracts, allowable general and administrative expenses. According to the provisions of U.S. Government contracts, the customer asserts title to, or a security interest in, inventories related to such contracts as a result of contract advances, performance-based payments, and progress payments. In accordance with industry practice, inventoried costs are classified as a current asset and include amounts related to contracts having production cycles longer than one year. Product inventory primarily consists of raw materials and is stated at the lower of cost or market, generally using the average cost method. General corporate expenses and IR&D allocable to commercial contracts are expensed as incurred.
 
Outsourcing Contract Costs – Costs on outsourcing contracts, including costs incurred for bid and proposal activities, are generally expensed as incurred. However, certain costs incurred upon initiation of an outsourcing contract are deferred and expensed over the contract life. These costs represent incremental external costs or certain specific internal costs that are directly related to the contract acquisition and transition/set-up. The primary types of costs that may be capitalized include labor and related fringe benefits, subcontractor costs, and travel costs. The company capitalized $4 million, $57 million, and $111 million and amortized $39 million, $46 million, and $52 million of such costs in 2010, 2009 and 2008, respectively. At December 31, 2010, and 2009, respectively, deferred outsourcing contract costs of $239 million and $274 million were included in miscellaneous other assets.
 
Depreciable Properties – Property, plant, and equipment owned by the company are depreciated over the estimated useful lives of individual assets. Most of these assets are depreciated using declining-balance methods, with the remainder using the straight-line method, with the following lives:
 
         
    Years  
Land improvements
    2-45  
Buildings and improvements
    2-45  
Machinery and other equipment
    2-25  
Capitalized software costs
    3-5  
Leasehold improvements
    Length of lease  
         
 
Leases – The company uses its incremental borrowing rate in the assessment of lease classification as capital or operating and defines the initial lease term to include renewal options determined to be reasonably assured. The company conducts operations primarily under operating leases.
 
Many of the company’s real property lease agreements contain incentives for tenant improvements, rent holidays, or rent escalation clauses. For tenant improvement incentives, the company records a deferred rent liability and amortizes the deferred rent over the term of the lease as a reduction to rent expense. For rent holidays and rent escalation clauses during the lease term, the company records minimum rental expenses on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease. For purposes of recognizing lease incentives, the company uses the date of initial possession as the commencement date, which is generally when the company is given the right of access to the space and begins to make improvements in preparation of intended use.
 
Goodwill and Other Purchased Intangible Assets – The company performs impairment tests for goodwill as of November 30th of each year, or when evidence of potential impairment exists. When it is determined that impairment has occurred, a charge to operations is recorded. Goodwill and other purchased intangible asset balances are included in the identifiable assets of the business segment to which they have been assigned. Any goodwill impairment, as well as the amortization of other purchased intangible assets, is charged against the respective business segments’ operating income. Purchased intangible assets are amortized on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives (see Note 12).
 
Self-Insurance Accruals – Accruals for self-insured workers’ compensation totaling approximately $549 million and $520 million as of December 31, 2010, and 2009, respectively are included in other current liabilities and other long-term liabilities. The company estimates the required liability for such claims on a discounted basis utilizing


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actuarial methods based on various assumptions, which include, but are not limited to, the company’s historical loss experience and projected loss development factors.
 
Litigation, Commitments, and Contingencies – Amounts associated with litigation, commitments, and contingencies are recorded as charges to earnings when management, after taking into consideration the facts and circumstances of each matter, including any settlement offers, has determined that it is probable that a liability has been incurred and the amount of the loss can be reasonably estimated.
 
Retirement Benefits – The company sponsors various pension plans covering substantially all employees. The company also provides post-retirement benefit plans other than pensions, consisting principally of health care and life insurance benefits, to eligible retirees and qualifying dependents. The liabilities, unamortized benefit plan costs and annual income or expense of the company’s pension and other post-retirement benefit plans are determined using methodologies that involve several actuarial assumptions, the most significant of which are the discount rate, the long-term rate of asset return (based on the market-related value of assets), and the medical cost experience trend rate (rate of growth for medical costs). Unamortized benefit plan costs consist primarily of accumulated net after-tax actuarial losses. Net actuarial gains or losses are re-determined annually and principally arise from gains or losses on plan assets due to variations in the fair market value of the underlying assets and changes in the benefit obligation due to changes in actuarial assumptions. Net actuarial gains or losses are amortized to expense in future periods when they exceed ten percent of the greater of the plan assets or projected benefit obligations by benefit plan. The excess of gains or losses over the ten percent threshold are subject to amortization over the average future service period of employees of approximately ten years. The fair values of plan assets are determined based on prevailing market prices or estimated fair value for investments with no available quoted prices. Not all net periodic pension income or expense is recognized in net earnings in the year incurred because it is allocated to production as product costs, and a portion remains in inventory at the end of a reporting period. The company’s funding policy for pension plans is to contribute, at a minimum, the statutorily required amount to an irrevocable trust.
 
Stock Compensation – All of the company’s stock compensation plans are considered equity plans, and compensation expense recognized is net of estimated forfeitures over the vesting period. The company issues stock options and stock awards, in the form of restricted performance stock rights and restricted stock rights, under its existing plans. The fair value of stock option grants are estimated on the date of grant using a Black-Scholes option-pricing model and expensed on a straight-line basis over the vesting period of the options, which is generally three to four years. The fair value of stock awards is determined based on the closing market price of the company’s common stock on the grant date and at each reporting date the number of shares is adjusted to equal the number ultimately expected to vest. Compensation expense for stock awards is expensed over the vesting period, usually three to five years.
 
Foreign Currency Translation – For operations outside the U.S. that prepare financial statements in currencies other than the U.S. dollar, results of operations and cash flows are translated at average exchange rates during the period, and assets and liabilities are generally translated at end-of-period exchange rates. Translation adjustments are included as a separate component of accumulated other comprehensive loss in consolidated shareholders’ equity.


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Accumulated Other Comprehensive Loss – The components of accumulated other comprehensive loss are as follows:
 
                 
    December 31
$ in millions   2010   2009
Cumulative translation adjustment
          $ 41  
Net unrealized gain on marketable securities and cash flow hedges, net of tax expense of $3 as of December 31, 2010, and 2009
  $ 5       4  
Unamortized benefit plan costs, net of tax benefit of $1,801 as of December 31, 2010, and $1,984 as of December 31, 2009
    (2,762 )     (3,059 )
                 
Total accumulated other comprehensive loss
  $ (2,757 )   $ (3,014 )
                 
 
2.   ACCOUNTING STANDARDS UPDATES
 
Accounting Standards Updates Not Yet Effective
Accounting Standards Updates not effective until after December 31, 2010, are not expected to have a significant effect on the company’s consolidated financial position or results of operations.
 
3.   DIVIDENDS ON COMMON STOCK AND CONVERSION OF PREFERRED STOCK
 
Dividends on Common Stock – In May 2010, the company’s board of directors approved an increase to the quarterly common stock dividend, from $0.43 per share to $0.47 per share, for stockholders of record as of June 1, 2010.
 
In May 2009, the company’s board of directors approved an increase to the quarterly common stock dividend, from $0.40 per share to $0.43 per share, for stockholders of record as of June 1, 2009.
 
In April 2008, the company’s board of directors approved an increase to the quarterly common stock dividend, from $0.37 per share to $0.40 per share, for stockholders of record as of June 2, 2008.
 
Conversion of Preferred Stock – On February 20, 2008, the company’s board of directors approved the redemption of the 3.5 million shares of mandatorily redeemable convertible preferred stock on April 4, 2008. Prior to the redemption date, substantially all of the preferred shares were converted into common stock at the election of stockholders. All remaining unconverted preferred shares were redeemed by the company on the redemption date. As a result of the conversion and redemption, the company issued approximately 6.4 million shares of common stock.
 
4.   EARNINGS (LOSS) PER SHARE
 
Basic Earnings (Loss) Per Share – Basic earnings (loss) per share from continuing operations are calculated by dividing earnings (loss) from continuing operations available to common stockholders by the weighted-average number of shares of common stock outstanding during each period.
 
Diluted Earnings (Loss) Per Share – Diluted earnings per share include the dilutive effect of stock options and other stock awards granted to employees under stock-based compensation plans. The dilutive effect of these securities totaled 4.2 million and 4.1 million shares for the year ended December 31, 2010, and 2009. For the year ended December 31, 2008, the potential dilutive effect of 7.1 million shares from these securities and the mandatorily redeemable convertible preferred stock (see Note 3) were excluded from the computation of weighted-average dilutive shares outstanding as the shares would have had an anti-dilutive effect on the loss per share computation.
 
The weighted-average diluted shares outstanding for the years ended December 31, 2010, 2009, and 2008, exclude anti-dilutive stock options to purchase approximately 2.8 million shares, 8.1 million shares, and 2.1 million shares, respectively, because such options have exercise prices in excess of the average market price of the company’s common stock during the year.


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Share Repurchases – The table below summarizes the company’s share repurchases beginning January 1, 2008:
 
                                                     
    Amount
      Total Shares
      Shares Repurchased
    Authorized
  Average Price
  Retired
      (In millions)
Authorization Date   (In millions)   Per Share(2)   (In millions)   Date Completed   2010   2009   2008
December 19, 2007
  $ 3,600     $ 59.82       60.2     August 2010     15.7       23.1       21.4  
June 16, 2010(1)
    2,000       59.95       4.0           4.0                  
                                                     
                                  19.7       23.1       21.4  
                                                     
 
(1) On June 16, 2010, the company’s board of directors authorized a share repurchase program of up to $2 billion of the company’s common stock. As of the end of the fourth quarter 2010, the company had $1.8 billion remaining under this authorization for share repurchases.
 
(2) Includes commissions paid and calculated as the average price per share since the repurchase program authorization date.
 
Share repurchases take place at management’s discretion or under pre-established non-discretionary programs from time to time, depending on market conditions, in the open market, and in privately negotiated transactions. The company retires its common stock upon repurchase and has not made any purchases of common stock other than in connection with these publicly announced repurchase programs.
 
5.   BUSINESS ACQUISITIONS
 
2009 – In April 2009, the company acquired Sonoma Photonics, Inc., as well as assets from Swift Engineering’s Killer Bee Unmanned Air Systems product line for an aggregate amount of approximately $33 million in cash. The operating results of these businesses are reported in the Aerospace Systems segment from the date of acquisition. The assets, liabilities, and results of operations of these businesses were not material to the company’s consolidated financial position or results of operations, and thus pro-forma financial information is not presented.
 
2008 – In October 2008, the company acquired 3001 International, Inc. (3001 Inc.) for approximately $92 million in cash. 3001 Inc. provides geospatial data production and analysis, including airborne imaging, surveying, mapping and geographic information systems for U.S. and international government intelligence, defense and civilian customers. The operating results of 3001 Inc. are reported in the Information Systems segment from the date of acquisition. The assets, liabilities, and results of operations of 3001 Inc. are not material to the company’s consolidated financial position or results of operations, and thus pro-forma information is not presented.
 
6.   BUSINESS DISPOSITIONS
 
2009 – In December 2009, the company sold ASD for $1.65 billion in cash to an investor group led by General Atlantic, LLC, and affiliates of Kohlberg Kravis Roberts & Co. L.P., and recognized a gain of $15 million, net of taxes. ASD was a business unit comprised of the assets and liabilities of TASC, Inc., its wholly-owned subsidiary TASC Services Corporation, and certain contracts carved out from other Northrop Grumman businesses also in Information Systems that provide systems engineering technical assistance (SETA) and other analysis and advisory services. Sales for this business in the years ended December 31, 2009, and 2008, were approximately $1.5 billion, and $1.6 billion, respectively. The assets, liabilities and operating results of this business unit are reported as discontinued operations in the consolidated statements of operations for all periods presented.
 
2008 – In April 2008, the company sold its Electro-Optical Systems (EOS) business for $175 million in cash to L-3 Communications Corporation and recognized a gain of $19 million, net of taxes. EOS, formerly a part of the Electronic Systems segment, produces night vision and applied optics products. Sales for this business through April 2008 were approximately $53 million. The assets, liabilities and operating results of this business are reported as discontinued operations in the consolidated statements of operations for all periods presented.


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Table of Contents

 
NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORATION
 
Discontinued Operations – Earnings for the businesses classified within discontinued operations (primarily the result of the sale of ASD discussed above) were as follows:
 
                         
    Year Ended December 31
$ in millions   2010   2009   2008
Sales and service revenues
          $ 1,536     $ 1,625  
 
Earnings from discontinued operations
            149       146  
Income tax expense
            (54 )     (55 )
 
Earnings, net of tax
          $ 95     $ 91  
Gain on divestitures
    10       446       66  
Income tax benefit (expense)
    5       (428 )     (40 )
 
Gain from discontinued operations, net of tax
  $ 15     $ 18     $ 26  
Earnings from discontinued operations, net of tax
  $ 15     $ 113     $ 117  
 
 
Tax rates on discontinued operations vary from the company’s effective tax rate generally due to the non-deductibility of goodwill for tax purposes and the effects, if any, of capital loss carryforwards.
 
7.   SHIPBUILDING STRATEGIC ACTIONS
 
In July 2010, the company announced plans to consolidate its Gulf Coast shipbuilding operations by winding down its shipbuilding operations at the Avondale, Louisiana facility in 2013 after completing the LPD-class ships currently under construction there. Future LPD-class ships will be built in a single production line at the company’s Pascagoula, Mississippi facility. The consolidation is intended to reduce costs, increase efficiency, and address shipbuilding overcapacity. Due to the consolidation, the company expects higher costs to complete ships currently under construction in Avondale due to anticipated reductions in productivity and increased the estimates to complete LPDs 23 and 25 by approximately $210 million. The company recognized a $113 million pre-tax charge to Shipbuilding’s operating income for these contracts during the second quarter of 2010. The company is currently exploring alternative uses of the Avondale facility by potential new owners, including alternative opportunities for the workforce there.
 
In addition, the company anticipates that it will incur substantial restructuring and facilities shutdown-related costs, including, but not limited to, severance, relocation expense, and asset write-downs related to the Avondale facility decision. These costs are expected to be allowable expenses under government accounting standards and are expected to be recoverable in future years’ overhead costs. These future costs could approximate $310 million and such costs should be allocable to existing flexibly priced contracts or future negotiated contracts at the Gulf Coast operations in accordance with FAR provisions relating to the treatment of restructuring and shutdown related costs.
 
In its initial audit report on the company’s cost proposal for the restructuring and shutdown related costs, the Defense Contract Audit Agency (DCAA) stated that, in general, the proposal was not adequately supported in order for them to reach a conclusion. They also questioned approximately ten percent of the costs submitted and did not accept the cost proposal as submitted. The company intends to resubmit its proposal to address the concerns expressed by the DCAA. Ultimately, the company anticipates that this process will result in an agreement with the U.S. Navy that is substantially in accord with management’s cost allowability expectations. Accordingly, the company has treated these costs as allowable costs in determining the cost and earnings performance on Shipbuilding’s contracts in process. If there is a formal challenge to the company’s treatment of its restructuring costs, there are prescribed dispute resolution alternatives to resolve such a challenge and the company would likely pursue a dispute resolution process.